worm disease is a disease that has eaten deep into the bone marrow of
most developing countries especially in the rural areas of these
countries, though efforts has been made and still being made it has to
be treated or fought severely for it to be entirely eradicated. That is
why the researcher embarked on this research to study and bring out the
roles of radio and interpersonal communication in the eradication of
guinea worm using Nkalagu community as a case study. The work will be
divided into five chapters to allow it to be treated better. Chapter one
will comprise or contain from the brief introduction of the study to
the scope and limitation of the research. Chapter two will be reviewing
relevant literatures on the roles of radio and interpersonal
communication in the eradication of guinea worm. Chapter three will deal
on the methodology and strategies that will be used in the collection
of data for the research, then this data that has been collected will be
carefully and clearly presented in tables and interpreted in chapter
four while chapter five will give the summary, conclusion and
recommendations for further study.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the
1.2 Statement of research problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Significant of the study
1.5 Research questions
1.6 Research hypotheses
1.7 Operational and conceptual definition of terms
1.8 Assumptions of the study
1.9 The scope and limitations of the study
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Sources of literature
2.2 Literature review
2.2.1 A Brief overview of communication
2.2.2 The history of radio: an electronic medium of
2.2.3 A brief history of interpersonal communication
2.2.4 A brief history of guinea worm
2.2.5 Life cycle of dracunculus medinensis
2.2.6 Treatment of guinea worm
2.2.7 Social and economic impact of guineaworm
2.2.8 Endemic areas
2.2.9 Declaring guinea worm disease eradicable
2.2.10 The roles radio has played in the eradication
of guineaworm in Nkalagu
2.2.11 The roles interpersonal communication has
played in the eradication of guinea worm
2.2.12 with efforts made so far does guinea worm
2.2.13 Barriers of the eradication of guinea worm
2.2.14 Suggestions on the ideal roles of radio
and interpersonal communication in the
eradication of guinea worm in Nkalagu
2.3 Theoretical framework
2.4 Summary of literature
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Area of the study
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sample and sampling techniques
3.5 Instrument for data collection
3.6 Method of data collection
3.7 Validity of the instrument
3.8 Method of data analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULT
4.1 Data analysis
4.2 Test of hypotheses
4.3 Discussion and interpretation of result
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
worm disease also known as DRACUNCULIASIS or MEDINA WORM is a very
serious disease that has been a thorn in the flesh of man.
is one of the most documented human parasites with tales of its
behaviour reaching as far back as the second century B.C. This disease
which has been in many places but mostly significant in Africa countries
like Sudan, Mali, Ghana, Ethiopia and Nigeria is only contracted when a
person drinks any water that has been contaminated with the larvae or
walks unprotected in infected waters.
Nevertheless in Nigeria especially in Nkalagu community in Ebonyi State
this disease affected more people due to the fact that they drink from
ponds, Streams and rivers without getting the water treated. The rate of
the disease drew the attention of the media who noticed that many
people contract this disease out of ignorance and lack of social
amenities, like bore hole and pipe borne water in the community, the
media used radio because of it’s characteristics of breaking all
language barriers, cheaper to afford and wide reach to tell the people
precautionary measures to take so as not to contract this disease.
The radio also created awareness to the government and other people to
come to the aid of Nkalagu people with infrastructure and fund for
treatment of infected persons, then they used interpersonal
communication to organize seminars and talks shows where the people are
being educated on everything they need to know about the disease and how
to prevent it from reoccurring.
The study of the roles of interpersonal communication and radio in
Nkalagu, in the eradication of guinea worm is necessary because the
previous efforts though reduced, did not eradicate this disease, so the
researcher using Nkalagu community want to establish and document their
ideal roles in eradication of this disease so that it will serve as a
reference material in case of any further occurrence in the community of
any other place, and also enhance the quest and fight for eradication.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
Nkalagu community in Ebonyi state people suffer from guinea worm
disease because they drink from ponds and streams, and the media using
interpersonal communication and radio have failed in their quest to
eradicate this disease, that is why the researcher embarked on this
research to find out the main roles they play or the ideal roles they
are meant to play towards the total eradication of this disease.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OR PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Every movement by man requires focus that is why the objectives of this study are:
1. To ascertain or discover how interpersonal communication and radio educate and expose man to his environment
ascertain the roles of both interpersonal communication and radio
towards the eradication of guinea worm in Nkalagu community.
3. To find out how effective they are in their eradication roles or programmes.
4. To examine the problems and prospectects of interpersonal communication and radio in the eradication of guinea worm in Nkalagu.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
study is aimed at exposing the roles of interpersonal communication and
radio in the eradication of guinea worm especially in Nkalagu
From this the knowledge of the ruralites will be widened to initiate
and carryout eradication programmes or projects on their own when the
To students as well especially those of them in the health sector, they
can learn on how communication enhances the eradication of guinea worm
in rural areas.
For organizations especially Word Health Organization (WHO), United
Nation International Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and others who
fight or are fighting seriously against this disease to see that it is
eradicated, this work will guide them on the best way to approach
eradication programmes especially in rural areas where the disease is
rampant by exposing to them how effective and easier interpersonal
communication and radio will make the whole programme.
In conclusion the government as the last resort in a country should see
to it that they get rural dwellers involved in any of the project they
are embarking on especially eradication projects because they constitute
70% of the populace.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Is communication necessary in the effort of eradicating guinea worm?
2. Are radio and interpersonal communication suitable as media of communication for this eradication exercise?
Is radio more effective than interpersonal communication in reporting
each new case or development of the disease anywhere?
Is interpersonal communication more persuasive than radio in educating
the rural dwellers on preventive and simple control measures?
5 Is interpersonal communication more effective than radio in treatment of infected persons?
Can radio be of far reach and generally understandable than
interpersonal communication when it comes to message transmission?.
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following hypothetical statements are to be tested
H1: communication is necessary in the effort of eradicating guinea worn
Ho: communication is not necessary in the effort of eradicating guinea worn
H2: Radio and interpersonal communication are suitable as media of communication for this eradication exercise.
Ho: Radio and interpersonal communication are not suitable as media of communication for this eradication exercise.
H3: Radio is more effective than interpersonal communication in reporting each new case or development of the disease any where.
Ho: Radio is not more effective than interpersonal communication
in reporting each new case or development of the disease any where.
communication is more persuasive than radio in educating the rural
dwellers on preventive and simple control measures of guinea worm.
communication is not more persuasive than radio in educating the rural
dwellers on preventive and simple control measures of guinea worm.
H5: Interpersonal communication is more effective than radio in treatment of infected persons.
Ho: Interpersonal communication is not more effective than radio in treatment of infected persons.
H6: Radio can be of far reach and generally understandable than interpersonal communication when it comes to message transmission.
Radio can not be of far reach and generally understandable than
interpersonal communication when it comes to message transmission.
1.7 OPERATIONAL AND CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
It is important to note before going further that the researcher put up a working definition of the following terms.
Role, Radio, Interpersonal Communication, Eradication and Guinea worm as anchors through which this research work is conducted.
1. Role: According
to oxford advanced learners dictionary role is the function or position
that somebody has or is expected to have in an organization, in a
relationship or in a society.
Roles are functions that radio and inter personal communication are
expected to perform towards the eradication of guinea worm in Nkalagu.
2. Radio: According
to Okunna in her introduction to mass communication radio is an audio
medium of broadcasting in electronics family that has the capacity to
cut through the barriers of illiteracy and infrastructural facilities
which could limit the ability of the print media to reach large
Radio is an audio medium of broadcasting in electronics family, which
has the capacity to cut through the barriers of illiteracy and
infrastructural facilities in the eradication of guinea worm in Nkalagu
3. Interpersonal Communication:
Is viewed by Miller as a type of communication that occurs between or
among a small group of communicators usually in two face setting with
opportunity for immediate feedback.
It is a type of communication that occurs between stakeholders and
other personnel’s sent for seminars or talk shows in eradication of
guinea worm programme, and the members of the society or community the
programme is meant for usually in two face setting with opportunity for
4. Guinea worm: It is a parasitic infection caused by nematode dracunculus medinensis, it is also knows as dracunculiasis or medina worm.
is a parasitic infection caused by nematode dracunculus medinensis, and
it is the disease that its eradication in Nkalagu is being talked
1.8 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
In this study it is assumed that any role played by radio and
interpersonal communication in the eradication of guinea worm in Nkalagu
is a welcome development.
It is assumed that radio and interpersonal communication encourages or
enhances guinea worm eradication in Nkalagu community.
That interpersonal communication and radio carryout adequate coverage
of the ruralities in guinea worm eradication programme in Nkalagu
there is no language barrier in the use of radio and interpersonal
communication in eradication of guinea worm in Nkalagu community.
That Nkalagu community dwellers receive willingly all the health
programmes by the government and organizations and the ones aired on
radio concerning guinea worm eradication.
And finally that the use of native language by radio and personnel’s
sent or selected by the community to interpret to them in their native
language what is being said during lecturers, seminars and talks shows,
encourages the participation of more people in the eradication programme
and their co-operation too.