RADIO BROADCASTING IN NIGERIA (FROM THE BEGINNING)
A.M Doki et al (2009:155) noted that broadcasting started in
Nigeria in 1932 when British colonial administrators introduced radio
broadcasting in Nigeria. The broadcasting was then relayed to Nigerian
homes through the Radio distribution Services- RDS, which used
rediffusion sets known as “wired wireless” that functioned in the form
of box like speakers to which radio signals were connected. Under that
arrangement, audience could only receive BBC broadcast and had no
alternative to it. By 1939, there were about 2,000 license receivers
and by 1948, subscribers had grown to about 9.000 wired to ten stations
around the country.
British government in 1949 set up a country transmission centre
under turner Byron to come up under proper recommendation for
broadcasting services that could maintain national profile. The
committee recommended the setting up of National broadcasting services.
In 1951, the National Broadcasting Services-NBS was established
with its headquarters in Lagos. The NBS immediately established
autonomous regional stations in Kaduna and Enugu in 1952 and Ibadan in
1995 respectively. Later, provincial centres were set up in Kano, Jos,
Sokoto, Illorin and Maiduguri.
In 1956, the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation-NBC was
established and began operations in 1957 with statutory functions to
provide broadcasting services in the country. The NBC with its
headquarters in Lagos started broadcasting and maintained both regional
and provincial studios of the National Broadcasting Services-NBS.
Another scholar, Sambe (2008:82) while tracing the historical
development of radio in Nigeria said the process was gradual but
interesting. According to him, broadcasting was introduced to Nigerian
first as wired system popularly known as radio distribution or
re-diffusion. This is a process where wires connected to loudspeakers
were installed in the houses of subscribers, until the BBC in 1930,
introduced wireless broadcasting in Nigeria.
The main duty of the RDS was to relay British broadcasting
corporation programmes with only one hours set aside for local
programmes in the evenings, featuring news, entertainment as well as
local announcements. Subscribers paid small fees for the listening boxes
at their locations. Stations were opened in Ibadan in 1939, kano in
1944, Kaduna, Enugu, Abeokuta, Ijebu-ode, Jos, Zaria, Calabar and
Port-Harcourt in subsequent years.
EMERGENCY OF PRIVATE MEDIA IN NIGERIA
A.M Doki et al (2007-152) while tracing the emergence of private
broadcast media in Nigeria noted that the Federal Government in 1992
promulgated decree No. 38 of 1992 that brought about the existence of
National Broadcasting Commission-NBC to regulate, monitor and manage
the affairs of broadcasting in the country. The decree ushered in a new
era of deregulation in Nigeria, leading to the establishment of
privately own radio and television stations across the country. Such
stations include Nagarta Radio in Kaduna, Freedom Radio in Kano, AIT,
The first private radio station in Nigeria was Ray-Power FM in
1994, while the Desmims Independent Television- DITV by Kalifa Baba
Ahmed in Kaduna became the first private TV station in the country.
Some of the private TV and radio stations that emerged after the
first two include- Galazy TV Ibadan, AIT Lagos, Independent
Television-ITV Benin city, Channel Television Lagos, Rhythms FM Radio,
Cool FM, State FM, all in Lagos among others.
In 2002, more licenses were given to eleven new private radio
stations and four specialized FM stations. These include, Radio Gotel
Yola, Joy FM Makurdi, Nagara Radio Kaduna, Freedom Radio Kano, Pacific
FM Osogbo etc.
It is important to note that with the exception of Nagarta Radio
which operates on Amplitude Modulation-AM channel, all the other
private radio stations operates on Frequency Modulation FM.
In February 2007, twenty eight new private broadcast stations,
twenty two of which were radio, while the remaining six campus radio
station were also licensed by the National broadcasting commission
BROADCASTING MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA
Broadcasting Management is a dynamic process by which managers
create, direct and maintain and operate a purposive organisation
through a system of coordinated, co-operative human effort. All
management effort aims at mobilizing talent, materials and capital to
achieve laid down organisational and national broadcasting goals. (Mc
Management generally rests on three pillars; the managers;
process and the organisation which include people, material, capital
In broadcasting, management is people-oriented as it uses these
talents to satisfy audience needs. In a deregulated market driven
broadcasting outfit, Jay Hoffer considers Management to be principally
involved in Management thinking, (personal and impersonal factors),
programming and sales. All other departments exist to provide support
services to those functions. According to Hoffer, “in most of the
Management, leader’s effort centers on thinking rather than doing”.
This is because broadcasting is an entertainment, informative as well
as an advertising medium.