The study is a critical examination of the effect of mass media in Traditional media of
communication as tools for effective rural development. Notwithstanding the
various modern means of communication such as RADIO, INTERNET, TELEVISION,
NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES, etc. The rural means of communication is still the
epitome for rural development. These traditional medium of communication
includes the following Ekwe, Ikoro, Smoke signals, Open market, Age groups,
palm fronds, The town crier oja etc.
both primary and secondary data will be used in gathering information for the
study. The secondary data will come as a review of documented materials, while
the primary data will be obtained with the help of questionnaire and oral
interview, and will be administered to the ruralites with the help of the researcher,
who will help the uneducated ones to fill in the boxes by explaining the
questions to them.
total of 382 questionnaires will be distributed precisely to the residents of
Iwollo Oghe community.
data collected will be tabulated and analyzed using percentages.
three hypotheses formulated will be tested using chi-Square method
findings of the study will show among others that the traditional medium of
communication is a tool for an effective rural development.
The study will also recommend that the modern
media should be used in conjunction with the traditional media of communication
which people are familiar with; this will make for participatory communication
to enhance national development.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page ii
Table of contents viii
CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION 1
OF THE STUDY 1
OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM 16
OF THE STUDY 18
OF THE STUDY 18
DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY 19
OF THE STUDY 21
DEFINITION OF TERMS 22
OF THE STUDY. 24
CHAPTER TWO -REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
2.1 SOURCES OF LITERATURE REVIEW 26
2.2 REVEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE 29
2.3 THEORITICAL FRAME WORK 38
2.4 SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW 39
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN 43
3.2 AREA OF THE STUDY 44
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY 44
3.4 RESEARCH SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES 45
3.5 INSTRUMENT USED FOR DATA COLLECTION 48
3.6 VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT 48
3.7 METHOD OF COLLECTING DATA 49
3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS 49
CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND
4.1 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION 52
4.2 HYPOTHESES TESTING 65
4.3 DISCLOSURE OF FINDING 72
5.1 SUMMARY 75
5.2 RECOMMENDATION 77
5.3 CONCLUSION 80
APPENDIX I 82
APPENDIX II 83
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Communication is a variety of behaviours, processes and
Technologies by which meaning is transmitted or
derived from information. The team is used to describe diverse activities.
Communication is at the core of our
humanness. How we communicate with each
other shapes our lives and our world. Human beings rely on their communicative
skills as they confront events that challenge their flexibility, integrity,
expressiveness, and critical thinking skills.
involves different forms which includes the intrapersonal, interpersonal,
group, public, mass communication etc all these are different ways/means
through which we interact, associate, communicate, relate, share ideas, views,
opinion, information, norms and values with ourselves and others. Communication
is regarded as the life blood of human existence which rapidly enhances unity
that leads to the development of our society at large.
both modern and Traditional means has promoted peaceful co-existence,
understanding and self-awareness among human beings. Both modern and
traditional means of communication have certain common elements that together
help define the communication process. These elements includes the following
people. In communication there must be individuals who are involved in the
dissemination of the message and at the same time receiving the message inorder
to make it lively and effective. In communication things are done
simultaneously (sending and receiving] if we were just receivers, we would be
no more than receptacles for signals from others, never having an opportunity
to let anyone know how we were being affected, if we were just senders, we
would simply emit signals without ever stopping to consider whom, if anyone is
being affected. But, if we were able to achieve our goals of communicating it
simply signifies that there is an effective communication between the sender
and the receiver at the same level.
Messages- in communication, the message is the
communication itself. A message is the content of a communicative act.
Everything one does with his/her body, or with other medium such as what we
talk about, the words we use to express the thoughts and feelings, the sounds
you make, your gestures, our facial expressions and perhaps even our touch or
smell all communicate information, this is to tell you how effective
communication can be, it involves our every second activity/actions. There is
no communication without a message being passed across.
Channels- In communication, these channels means the
medium/means through which the communication is being passed/disseminated. We
are regarded to be multi channels communicators. We have different channels
through which we communicate both in the urban and rural areas (settings) which
helps to proffer a better result of what is being sent.
Noise – in the context of communication, noise is
anything that interferes with or distorts our ability to send or receive
messages. Noise could be semantic factors such as uncertainty about what
another person’s words are supposed to mean.
Context – Communication always takes place IN some context
or setting. Every communication starts from somewhere, there must be a setting
that helps to make it real and natural and even acceptable.
Feedback - In
communication, whenever we interact, communicate with one or more persons, we
receive information in return. In communication we have positive feed back and
Positive feed back which could come from the
heterogeneous audience or rural dwellers as the case may be enhances whatever
behaviour is in progress. It encourages us to continue with our
information/attitude. In contrast, negative feedback extinguishes a behaviour;
it serves as corrective rather than a reinforcing behaviours.
Effect – In communication, as people communicate, they are
changed in some way by the interaction, which in turn influences what follows.
These effects could be as a result of exchange of influence. Communication
always has some effect on you and on the person or people with whom you are
interacting with. An effect can be emotional, physical, cognitive or any
combination of the three. Without all of these elements communication can never
be complete and its effectiveness is withdrawn.
has variety functions in our lives based on our daily activities, communication
helps us to create an understanding and insight. It allows us to understand
ourselves and others at the same time. Creating an insight into ourselves and
others. This is because when you get to know another person you get to know
yourself , you learn how others affect you. Communication also helps us to
create a meaningful relationships between ourselves and others, the level of
communication between us and others determines the level of our relationship
with them. Just as we need water, food and shelter, when we do not communicate
we become disoriented and maladjusted, and our life itself may be placed in
also helps to influence and to persuade others, making the people around us to
be able to do things the way we do, believe in what we do, Exchange the same
culture with us. And whenever people are being influenced by our idea and belief it means that our goals has
to Gamble and Gamble (2002) communication works, seventh edition, Remarks
“Communication gives us the chance to
share our personal reality with persons from our culture, as well as people
from different cultures”.
Communication takes the same shape whether we live
in an East Coast Urban area, a southern city, a desert community, in rural
area, a home in sunny California, a village in Asia, a plain in African or a
town in the middle East, we all engage in Similar activities when we
communicate. We may use different symbols rely on different strategies, and
desire different outcomes but the
processes we use and the motivations we have are strikingly alike.
in a bid to promote communication, various government of the world have among
other things been constructing roads, purchasing equipment and training
personnel for any meaningful development to occur in Nigeria and Africa in
general. There should be equal participation of both urban and rural settings
of the society.
way of achieving this is through the utilization of traditional communication
media in conjunction with the modern mass media.
Therefore, revival of our communication media is
one of the steps in bringing about economic and social development in the rural
setting of our country Nigeria.
of information about people and events, the satisfaction of news hunger
stimulated by war or rumour of war, the necessity to spread information about
political and religions decisions as well as threats to security, the need to
stimulate and strengthen the sense of identification with values and objectives
of the society, need of awareness of the authority structure and to generate
and identify loyalty to those in power, all these were answered by the
indigenous media form of communication.
looking at human communication and development tend to focus on it’s central
roles in continuation of a society through the communication and development of
significant symbols. The concept of honour, bravery, Love, co-operation and
honesty, for example are embodied in language and other symbolic behaviors that
create and sustain belief in ways of acting because they function as names
signifying proper, obvious ways of expressing relationships.
the late 1900’s and early 2000’s the concept of culture became a focus of study
in many academic disciplines including that of communication and development.
To social scientists, culture means people’s beliefs, customs, inventions and
technology. Cultural studies of communication began attracting interest in
Europe in the 1960’s and 1990s soon gained supports worldwide. Cultural critics
like Raymond Williams and Stuart Hall and other scholars in the united Kingdom
developed this approach that focuses on how the contemporary communication
media shape people’s understanding and action.
of our culture as a whole is necessarily because it will enhance overall
national development of our Traditional Artifacts as channels of communication.
Communication is the exchange of ideas and each society has it’s own
communication culture to reach it’s people. Every culture should not be by
passed, hence the interest in studying Iwollo oghe community to see their
communication development systems became imperative.
co-ordinated with modern ways of communication, news becomes more effective
those various assertions are challenging and inspiring and the social sciences
researchers in this area stood up for the challenges and inspirations. They
have at least come up with various studies in African traditional media of
communication which were unfortunately treated at the periphery in the past.
The negligence was caused by lack of foresight, lack of fund, man power and
interest. Such studies are now necessary because of the need to diffuse current
international and national development program in rural areas, which
accommodate more than 70 percent of Africa’s population. Such programs include
family planning, oral dehydration, war against indiscipline, and corruption,
operation feed the Nation of Obasanjo’s previous government, Directorate for
food, Roads and Rural infrastructure (DFRR), Better life for Rural Women,
MAMSER, WOTCLEF and other innovative ideas. The need for traditional
communication institution in most African countries including Nigeria by the
United Nations Education Scientific and cultural organization (UNESCO) and the
government of different countries.
World Bank Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC) various festivals of Art are
Epitomes of cultural reformation.
Traditional media of communication should be elevated by every citizen of this
country both the government, individuals and more especially the Journalists
who only pay mush interest in the foreign means neglecting the fact that the
traditional media of our communication in this country is the grass root of
They should endeavour to promote these various
traditional media of communication without emphasizing so much in the modern
means by visiting various villages, communities etc more especially their own
community to know how the various traditional media of communication are being co-ordinated for the promotion of
our cultural belief which enhance unity in the rural area that leads to the
development of our communities and country at large.
Notwithstanding the modern means of
communication, since the dawn of civilization for millions of years ago, every
society’s growth, survi val and
continuity depends on, among other things a system of communication, through
which people could exchange ideas and feelings; an economic system for the
production of goods and services; a health system to counteract disease and
ensure human reproduction; a socio – political system to maintain control and
order and a defense system to protect their territories against external
aggression of all these essential requirements of society, the system of
communication formed the mainstay of all the other systems, which came to
depend on it for effectiveness.
various traditional media of communication basically includes the following;
Tradition- Oral Tradition is one
of the most important media through which Nigerians interact/communicate with
their people/to themselves.
Okam (1987) notes that long before the
introduction of Roman, Arabic, Amharic letters and scripts in Africa, tradition
in the form of history, cultural values and heritages were handled down by word of mouth in the form of songs,
proverbs legends, religious liturgy, ballads and invocations. They are passed
on from people to people to people, from generation to generation, from area to
area and become legendary and immortalized with the passing of time. Oral
tradition dominated all other sources of information exchange in pre-colonial
Nigeria. Oral tradition helps in sharing knowledge of environment,
interpretation, explication of events occurring in society from a cultural
looking glass, Transmission of social heritage from one generation to another,
socializing new members and also entertaining the community/society at large.
The Town Crier- This is another
traditional media of communication. The voice of the town crier or village Gong
man is usually heard in the early hours of the morning preceded by the sound of
a gong. He announces important meetings, ceremonies, messages and imminent
troubles. Ugboajah (1985) sees the town criers as “a significant village
“broadcaster’ who summons the elders for decision and policy making for the
progress of the society. They relays their decisions to the village masses for
implementation: The town crier is always loaded with news, serve as traditional
communication link between the legal head and the villagers. He is being
regarded as the society’s journalist. The effectiveness of the town crier
usually lies in his oratory skills and thorough knowledge of the community
norms, values and heritages.
the Igbos he is natively called “Onye
Ogene”. Among the Hausa, he is the “Mai Shela”; he is usually selected by
the Sarki or the village head, the “Mai Shela” is being revered as a holy man
whose announcements are never doubted. One of his major duties is the
announcement of the date and time for the new moon, which signifies the
beginning of the Ramadan Festivities.
the Yorubas, he is also the “gbohun-gbohun” whose duty among others includes
announcements of the celebration days for the Egungun and sango religious
festivals and Among the other various ethnic groups in Nigeria, he occupies no
less credible and authoritative position. This relevance exists in today’s
The Talking Drum- The talking drum is
another traditional media of communication which helps in developing the rural
communities the talking drum is an extension of oral tradition. This talking
drum is also regarded as the “Ekwe Ikoro” in the Igbo communities, the Talking drum
reproduce the tonal pattern of a sentence in the proper sequence and can be
heard over a very long distance. The talking drum serves for two-pronged
communicative functions: Official and social functions.
are used to call meetings, for making some official announcements, at
sacrificial ceremonies and also for pumping the Adrenaline during wars. Socially - They provide gaiety during festivities and
ceremonies like new-Yam festivals, weddings, and chieftaincy title taking; they
also provide the atmosphere of suspense and tension during war and wrestling
Age Goups- Age Groups are old institutions that comprise
mostly males within the same age-brackets-usually those born within one to five
years age range. The Age Groups helps in getting things in order in the society
in which why belong. The name of age groups are derived either from the name of
their patron or father. The Age groups carry out community development project
which according to Ifemesia (1979) include
cleaning of the source of water supply the building and maintenance of roads
and bridges, village squares. Assembly houses and deity shrine; the execution
of laws and decision of the council of elders and the linage or village
assembly, including the collection of dues and fines, the punishment of crime
and the burial of the dead.
The age groups also helps in educating the young
groups about the traditions and needs for the maintenance of their culture.
Horns and Long Brass- These produce notes that can vary in length and tone.
these are used to communicate long messages and herald important events. The
long brass horn are mainly found in Northern states of Nigeria while the Ivory
horns are found in the south East states of the country where they have also becomes
states symbols of titled men.
Smoke Signals – Smoke Signals are almost nonexistent in modern
Nigeria. Previously, one of the earliest communication patterns between distant
communities, they were used to exchange information based on agreed codes. The
essence of smoke signals is underscored by an Igbo proverb that says, “any
message sent through smoke must reach to the heavens surely and clearly.
The Open Market- The open market always
remains one of the most powerful and important institution in Nigeria. It is
mostly located in or near a village/town. The village markets have a cycle,
which may be every Four-Five–days intervals; town markets are open daily.
Notwithstanding the fact that the market functions as the economic nerve
center, it has become a beehive of all sorts of communication activities. The
open market serves as a natural infrastructure for multi directional
dissemination of news, opinions and rumours and is important for agitation, it
provides a forum for “adherents of synergetic religions to propagate their
faith, politicians to solicit the votes of the common people, the open market
also offers one of the few opportunities for communication to move from
community to another”. Ike S. Ndolo (2005) stated, that in many Nigerian villages,
murderers and thieves are paraded and humiliated on market days where also one
can see newly weds, new fashions, newly born babies, new products and new
traditional dances, new products and
MCBride et al (1980) advised,
“policy makers and communication
practitioners should find a formula to preserve the relationship between
traditional and modern forms of communication without damaging the necessary
march towards modernity”.
are to signify how effective the various traditional media of communication
works for the development of our society.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
the Communication processes especially as regards to modern mass media such as
the print and the electronic media, the rural people seem to be marginalized
due to several factors. In spite of these factors, traditional Artifacts could
be positively exploited and utilized to meet the needs of rural populace. How
far the harnessing and utilization of these traditional means would get to
solve the problem of the rural tiesils the primary concern of this research.
importance of traditional Artifacts where it will enhance rural
communication and development, how effective are the
communication media, what similarities and
exist between these media and traditional communication
Iwollo communities are all some of the problems this
study is set
out to look into. The problem therefore is to find how
traditional media of communication are as a means of rural
OF THE STUDY OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
study is aimed at Identifying the role of traditional communication in the
development of Iwollo town in ezeagu Local Government Area of Enugu State and
other rural communities. . This
study intends to discover the Usefulness and limitation of any of those media
in the community. The effectiveness of the traditional media will be determined
and will serve as a base for comprising traditional communication in Iwollo
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be a humble contribution towards
the development of traditional media of communication in Iwollo oghe community
as a whole. It will also serve as a source of encouragement to marriage of
traditional and modern mass media of the community and others in Nigeria.
This study will also encourage other cultural
studies in African indigenous communication pattern and finally will guide
others who want to know and understand the traditional media of communication
SCOPE OF THE
As stated in the introduction the study is in Iwollo
community in Ezeagu North Local Government Area of Enugu state. The study gives
a brief background history of the community. The study also identifies the
traditional communication tools mostly used by the people of the community in
the past and this present day. The usefulness and limitations of these
Artifacts in serving the communication in the entire Igbo Land is as a result
of the short period of time.
Due to possible lack of maximum co-operation. This
study might be limited to information collected from population figure of the
community under study, the low literacy rate, the non-availability of
previous study on the topic and
scarcity of previous study on the topic and scarcity of the text books are all part of the limitations.
people have traditional means of communication?
What are these
traditional means of communication in Iwollo oghe community?
traditional means of communication in Iwollo oghe community more credible than
the modern mass media?
Is there any
complimentary role played by the traditional means of communication with
respect to the modern mass media?
traditional means of communication enhance rural based communication more than
the modern mass media?
traditional means of communication play a vital role in rural development?
oghe people do not have traditional means of communication.
HI: Iwollo oghe people have traditional means of
HO: The traditional means of communication are not
in existence in Iwollo oghe community
are traditional means of communication in Iwollo oghe community.
HO: The traditional means of communication are not
credible than the modern mass media.
H3: These traditional means of communication are
credible than the modern mass media.
1.8 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
I assume that after
this research work on the Need for the various traditional media of
communication in developing our rural communities, that the people of Iwollo
Oghe community and other rural communities will understand the basic needs for
using their various Traditional media of communication for the development of
I also assume
that this research work will enlighten the people more and educate them widely
in the need for the maintenance of their various means of communication
especially the traditional means.
I assume that this work will put to an end, the
problems of traditional media of
communication in our society.
1.9 CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
A – CONCEPTUAL - TRADITIONAL – According to the
Oxford Advanced LEARNERS dictionary, it is being part of the beliefs, customs
or way of life of a particular group
OPERATIONAL - TRADITIONAL – IT means the people’s way of life; the
common belief of the people living in a particular geographical area.
CONCEPTUAL – MEDIA - According to Longman dictionary media are all the
organization such as television, newspaper, Magazines or all other forms
through which people interact and get
information for the public.
B - OPERATIONAL - MEDIA- It could also be
referred to as any medium through
which information is being passed across to the people both Traditional and
A- CONCEPTUAL – COMUNICATION – According
to Longman dictionary. It is the process by which people exchange information
or express their thoughts and feelings.
B – OPERATIONAL - COMMUNICATION – It is also
the process by which we exchange
our ideas, views, opinion, norms, values, traditions, beliefs etc. from one
person to another through a medium.
A – CONCEPTUAL - TOOLS – According to Longman
dictionary it is defined as skill that is useful for doing your job.
OPERATIONAL – TOOLS – A useful means through which goals can be
A – CONCEPTUAL - EFFECTIVE – According to Oxford
Advanced learner’s dictionary, it is producing the result that is wanted or
intended, producing the result that is wanted or intended, and producing a
–OPERATIONAL –EFFECTIVE –Producing a successful result.
A – CONCEPTUAL
-RURAL –A remote area to the country
side, out of the city where people are dwelling with their common belief.
B – OPERATIONAL
– RURAL –An under developed area, where people are living with a common
A- CONCEPTUAL –DEVELOPMENT
–According to oxford advanced learners
dictionary, it is the gradual growth of something so it becomes more
advanced , stronger and acceptable.
B – OPERATIONAL
–DEVELOPMENT - An advancement of something, people, community.
1.10 – LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY – The
study is limited to the rural communities in Nigeria but Precisely Iwollo Oghe
F.O (1977). “Development Indigenous Communication in Nigeria “Journal of
Communication (Autumn) Vol.27, 4. 40-45.
Sean et al (1980), Many voices, one World: Communication
and society Today and Tomorrow.
UNESCO press paris PP.81-82
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