THE EFFECTS OF COMMERCIALIZATION ON THE CONTENTS OF PRIVATE MEDIA

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THE EFFECTS OF COMMERCIALIZATION ON THE CONTENTS OF PRIVATE MEDIA

Abstract

 

Commercialization of news began in Nigerian media houses as a result of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) introduced in 1986 and the eventual withdrawal of subsidies from government owned media houses see Ekwo (1996) and Ogbuoshi (2005). With the increasing rise in production cost and dwindling circulation, the media houses resort to all kinds of tricks including commercialization of the news to make money (Oso, 2000). Majority of the respondent admitted that media houses kills hard news to accommodate commercial stories. The situation has led to a lot of compromise, with sensationalisation of news stories and half-truths reaching alarming stage. Citing an instance with the Daily Times, a one time leading newspaper in Nigeria, Idowu (2001:15) noted the situation became so bad that: This commercialization at the institutional level is thriving because editors, publishers and owners of the broadcast stations/ print media see the organizations, or their investment, as a profit making venture that should yield the required financial return. Increasingly, commercial-oriented news stories are taking the place of hard news reports. Hanson (2005: 140) is right when he notes that: "reporters and editors are supposed to be concerned not with profits but rather with reporting the news as best they can. But that barrier is coming down, and editors are increasingly looking at their newspaper as a product that should appeal to advertisers as well as readers. Therefore, this work focuses on the effects of news commercialization on the contents of private media with Africa Independent Television (AIT), Lagos and Nigeria Tribune as case study.


Table of Contents


 

Title

 

Certification

 

Dedication

 

Acknowledgement

 

Abstract

 

Table of contents

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0        Introduction

 

1.1        Background to the Study

 

1.2        Statement of the Problem

 

1.3        Research Questions

 

1.4        Purpose of the Study

 

1.5        Significant of the Study

 

1.6        Scope of the Study

 

1.7        Limitations to the Study

 

1.8        Operational Definition of the Terms CHAPTER TWO

 

2.1        Literature Review

 

2.1        Meaning of News

 

2.2        Mass Media:

 

2.3        History of Print Media in Nigeria

 

2.4        History of Broadcast Media

 

2.5        Nigeria Perspective

 

2.6        Issues in Private Broadcasting

 

2.7        Media Ownership

 

2.8        History of Private Broadcasting Station in Nigeria

 

2.9        Nigeria Constitution and Media Law

 

2.10     Brief History of African Independent Television (AlT)

 

2.11     Organizational Profile

 

2.12     The Concept of News Commercialization


2.13     News Commercialization, Ethics and Objectivity in Journalism Practice in Nigeria

 

2.14     News Commercialization Operates at Two Levels in Nigeria

 

2.15     Why does news commercialization thrive in Nigeria?

 

2.16     An Irresponsible Press?

 

2.18     News Commercialization: Any Gains?

 

2.19     Ethical Implications of News Commercialization

 

2.20     Public Opinion and Media

 

2.21     Theoretical Framework

 

CHAPTER THREE

 

3.0        Research Methodology

 

3.1        Restatement of Research Questions

 

3.2        Research Design

 

3.3        Characteristics of the Study Population

 

3.4        Sampling Design Procedure

 

3.5        Sampling Size

 

3.6        Data Collection Instrument

 

3.7        Validity and Reliability of Study Instrument

 

3.8        Administration of Data Collection Instrument

 

3.9        Rate of Return of Questionnaire

 

3.10     Data Analysis Procedure CHAPTER FOUR

 

4.0        Data Presentation and Analysis

 

4.1        Data Analysis and Table

 

4.2        Answer to Research Questions

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

 

5.0        Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

 

5.1        Summary

 

5.2        Conclusion

 

5.3        Recommendations

 

Bibliography

 

Appendix


CHAPTER ONE

 

 

1.0       Introduction

 

 

1.1       Background to the Study

 

This work intends to assess the effect of news commercialization on news credibility in the broadcast media, with particular reference to Africa Independent Television and Nigerian Tribune using them as a case study.

 

The study intends to find out whether the commercialization of news affects its credibility and objectivity and equally to know if it encourages the “Brown envelope syndrome”, accuracy, balance, fairness etc. whether those who cannot afford to pay the media have the opportunity and chances to broadcast their events on air via Mass media of communication, such as the electronic broadcast media.

 

This study, will also enable the researcher to known if the news managers, News editors and Reporters (journalists) persistently carry out their gate – keeping roles and at the same time still carry out their watchdog roles.

 

In other words, whether they still maintain the ethics and laws of the profession or not or they are being influenced by the news sponsors and their money.

 

The study will also endeavour to find if the audience / public have it in mind that the news they read in newspapers and watch in these broadcast media are owned and are paid for by the sponsors since they are not usually mentioned during news broadcasting and information dissemination.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.2       Statements of the Research Problems


Critics have identified distortion of news, imbalanced report and the growing tendency for the public not to believe the media news (lack of objectivity) as major problems inherent in Africa Independent Television and Nigerian Tribune for news and other information.

 

This is the key problems the researcher wishes to establish is this research work.

 

Objectivity as an ethical standard is one of the most pervasive in all of journalism. Objectivity in news gathering and presentation is the reporters’ aims and objectives.

 

 

1.3         Objectives of the Study

 

The core aims and objectives of this study is to assess the credibility of broadcast news in both Africa Independent Television and Nigerian Tribune since its partial commercialization brought the emergence of news commercialization.

 

Policy of commercialization is not for private and cooperate organizations to be stake holders in media organization but for such means to be sources of fund for the running of the activities of the media, for the fact that government subventions is sacredly less to keep the organizations afloat. Therefore, the standard set up on news commercialization is another means by which funds can be raised within the media, for the upkeep of the activities.

 

What is being argued here is that, the media should made commercial news known for the audience, for them to be aware that news they listened to at that point in time is sponsored, by an unidentified people.

 

What the researcher meant is that the paid news and news not paid should be distinguished.

 

Observations made are shown that there are limitations in gate keeping functions of the editor. “The gate keeper is any person or formally organized group directly involved in relaying or bans ferry information from one individual to another through any medium of mass communication.” Such person or individual has the ability to limit the


information the public receive by editing the information, before it is disseminated.

 

The researcher equally wants to find out whether the above mentioned is practiced, for the fact that news paid for are edited as the sponsor wanted.

 

 

1.4       Research Questions

 

The following questions will be asked by the researcher:

 

1.   What is the effect of news commercialization on the perceived “Brown envelope syndrome” and how has it affected the news credibility of these media?

 

2.   Has news commercialization, deprived those who cannot afford the stipulated amount access to media?

 

3.   Has the gate-keeping role being restricted because of news commercialization?

 

4.   Do the audience know that the news they watch on AIT and read on Nigerian Tribune are paid for?

 

 

1.5       Significance of the Study

 

The significant of this study aims at revealing to the media practitioners and broadcast students, the importance of commercialization to the media and professionalism. The study of commercialization in media houses will assist the concept and to know its role in enhancing the success or failure of broadcasting industries.

 

 

1.6       Purpose of the Study

 

A lot has been said about commercialization on the contents of private media, however, little is known about ratifications and implications of the organization of this measure and how far it has affected or will affect the operation of the organization, their performances and fulfillment of their obligations and responsibility to the Nigerian public.

 

1.7       Scope of the Study


 

Although, the primary aims and objectives of the project are to examine the effect of commercialization on the content of private media, this can not be effectively talked without considering the demographic factor of AIT and Nigerian tribune staffs and sample number of the public that respond to the questionnaire of this study. Experience, education background, professional training, age, sex e. t. c must be considered before the distribution of research instruments.

 

 

 

 

1.8       Limitations of the Study

 

 

The study concentrates mostly on credibility and objectivity of news in Africa Independent Television and Nigerian Tribune. These factors will be linked up with the brown envelope syndrome amongst journalists and news editors. Time constraint has posed a lot of limitations to this work, inadequate finance of this project is another hindrance. This project is also limited to AIT and Nigerian Tribune where all findings would be generalized.

 

 

1.9       Definition of the Terms

 

 

Commercialization: It is a kind of dourness of fund from sales. Where money in generated from something in form of sales. A situation whereby the broadcast media generate income from the news by selling air time for news instead of broadcasting the news based on accepted news values.

 

Credibility: Credibility is which can be believed operational definition. Audience acceptance to believe the news contents of the broadcast media.

 

 

Gate Keeping: Any person or formally organized group directly involved in relaying or disseminating information from one individual to another


mass medium. Mass media audience perception of gate keepers incapability to limit information, removal of unwanted areas of the news story and to widen paid stories in the broadcast media.

 

Brown Envelope : A means by which news sponsors give money inform of bribe to journalist and editors. Audience view that editors and journalists collect money in terms of bribe from news sponsors, thereby preventing them from carrying out their unique roles unbiased.

 

Objectivity: Not being influenced by personal feelings, ideas, or bias. A state of being influenced by personal feelings or bias.

THE EFFECTS OF COMMERCIALIZATION ON THE CONTENTS OF PRIVATE MEDIA

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A Research proposal for the effects of commercialization on the contents of private media:
Reviews: A Review on the effects of commercialization on the contents of private media, effects, commercialization, contents project topics, researchcub.info, project topic, list of project topics, research project topics, journals, books, Academic writer.
Commercialization of news began in Nigerian media houses as a result of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) introduced in 1986 and the eventual withdrawal of subsidies from government owned media houses see Ekwo (1996) and Ogbuoshi (2005). With the increasing rise in production cost and dwindling circulation, the media houses resort to all kinds of tricks including commercialization of the news to make money (Oso, 2000). Majority of the respondent admitted that media houses kills hard news to accommodate commercial stories. The situation has led to a lot of compromise, with sensationalisation of news stories and half-truths reaching alarming stage. Citing an instance with the Daily Times, a one time leading newspaper in Nigeria, Idowu (2001:15) noted the situation became so bad that: This commercialization at the institutional level is thriving because editors, publishers and owners of the broadcast stations/ print media see the organizations, or their investment, as a profit making venture that should yield the required financial return... mass communication/comm. arts project topics

THE EFFECTS OF COMMERCIALIZATION ON THE CONTENTS OF PRIVATE MEDIA

Project Information

  • CATEGORY : MASS COMMUNICATION/COMM. ARTS
  • TYPE : PROJECT MATERIAL
  • FORMAT : MICROSOFT WORD
  • ATTRIBUTE : Documentation Only
  • PAGES : 54 Pages
  • CHAPTERS : 1 - 5
  • PRICE : ₦ 3,000.00

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