1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
have a powerful impact on a viewer’s attitude, and this impact cannot be
created by text alone. In a newspaper context, the presence of a photograph
will significantly alter the consumer’s attitude toward the framed issue.
Graphic presentation is not just doing any drawing you like. There are
conventions and various styles and techniques that are used. Graphic
presentation as the name suggests is communication using graphic elements.
These elements include symbols such as glyphs and icons, images such as
drawings and photographs, and can include the passive contributions of
substrate, color and surroundings. It is the process of creating, producing,
and distributing material incorporating words and images to convey data,
concepts, and emotions. The field of graphic presentations encompasses all
phases of the graphic communications processes from origination of the idea
(design, layout, and typography) through reproduction, finishing and
distribution of two- or three-dimensional products or electronic transmissions
and Heckler (1987) noted that little research examined the effects of nonverbal
message elements on consumer information processing. They also proposed that
the nature of pictorial stimuli suggests that pictures can be used effectively
to embed expectations within a message or news. If this is true, there are many
implications for advertisers and news producers alike. For instance, Singh,
Lessig, and Kim (2000) show that advertisers use pictures for several reasons,
including getting attention. In newspapers, visuals have proven to be a crucial
connection point, and Moses (2002) noted that graphics, photographs, and
headlines get far more attention from readers than text does. In a marketing
saturated environment, winning the consumer’s attention is half of the battle.
Furthermore, the mere association of a product with a positively evaluated
stimulus like an attractive picture, regardless of the picture content, may be
sufficient to alter attitude toward the product “without any rational belief
change preceding the effect” (Harris, 1983).
If it is understood
how consumers react to pictures in the marketing context, insight can be gained
into how photographs serve to influence news consumers. Advertisement and news practices
appear to be predicated on the belief that vivid information is more persuasive
than pallid information, with vividness typically viewed as a characteristic of
the stimulus; hence; pictures are vivid and verbal statements are pallid
(Kisielius & Sternthal, 1984). Persuasion is usually measured by asking
subjects to make attitudinal judgments about the message promotion. Within the
advertising and news framework, one can study the impact of images in relation
to influencing consumer perception and attitude.
The research of
graphic presentation in news and advertising has focused on two broad
categories: the effects of pictorial messages on memory and the impact of
pictures on consumer attitudinal response (Houston et al., 1987). The
attitudinal studies are significant because the manner in which graphics
influences a consumer’s opinion toward an advertisement or news could
realistically explain the way a photograph influences a news consumer’s opinion
about an article, or the issue discussed in the article. Petty and Cacioppo
(1981) have defined attitude as “a general and enduring positive or negative
feeling about some person, object, or issue” (Morris, Woo, Geason, & Kim,
2002). The visual component in advertisements may affect both the formation of
product attribute beliefs and attitude toward the advertisement (Mitchell,
2001). If the images in an advertisement or news can directly affect a
consumer’s perception and attitude, what is portrayed in those images is
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
According to Mitchell
(2001), the visual elements of news and advertisements may affect perception
and attitudes in at least two ways. First, consumers might make presumptions
about the news or advert based on the graphic information presented. These
presumptions may “result in the formation or change of beliefs about the
published information” (Mitchell, 2001, p. 21). Second, if the graphic element
is positively or negatively evaluated, it might affect a brand attitude
operating through perception toward the news and information. In essence, the
valence of a photograph can significantly influence a consumer’s perception
toward information. More often, graphics element are constantly used in
newspaper production with a view of providing the readers the vivid
information. This development has led to provision of accurate and correct
information on various sensitive topics. However, the researcher is examining
the impact of graphic presentation in newspaper production.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:
impact of graphic presentation in newspaper production.
examine the features of graphic presentation in newspaper production.
identify the advantages of graphic presentation in newspaper production.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
impact of graphic presentation in newspaper production?
are the features of graphic presentation in newspaper production?
are the advantages of graphic presentation in newspaper production?
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
outcome of this study will educate the managers of newspaper production
companies and the general public on the impact, features and advantages of
graphic presentation in newspaper production.
research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the
effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby
constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study will cover the impact and features of
graphics presentation in newspaper production.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the
efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature
or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire
constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with
other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for
the research work