Editorial freedom or independence
is the concept that editors-in-chief should have full authority over
the editorial content of their journal. Like individual and
national freedom or independence, it is a rhetorical concept whose
realisation flows from internal achievement as much as it depends on
external validation. From cover to cover, editors have the right
“to decide what is published, what is not published, when items are
published, and what (if any) amendments are made prior to publication,”
but they are constrained to “work within social, legal and ethical
frameworks that circumscribe their freedom” and make them accountable,
“in different but interlocking ways, to their publishers, readers
and contributors – and also to more abstract overseers: the medical
profession, science and society.” This freedom entails roles
and responsibilities (response-ability; the ability to respond)
embodied in specific codes of practice for editors, such as the
guidelines espoused by the International Committee of Medical
Journal Editors (ICMJE) and the World Association of Medical
Editors (WAME). The calling to embody these guidelines makes editing,
in effect, a vocation – a term that aptly describes burning both
the “midnight oil” and the “candle at both ends” that all too familiarly
mark the professional and personal life of any editor worth his or her
salt. It also involves burning bridges, as the following lines convey:
“journal editors walk a fine line. They must aspire to impartiality,
open-mindedness, and intellectual honesty. They must try to select
material for its merit, interest to readers, and originality alone. They
also want their journals to have a voice and a personality. If they
are doing their jobs well, they should give no favours, and
they should have no friends”. Thus, in its purest sense, true
editorial independence demands isolation and distancing, as “editors who
make final decisions about manuscripts must have no personal,
professional, or financial involvement in any of the issues they might
judge.” This self-imposed separation and solitude involves bracketing
one’s biases, prejudgments and preconceptions to enable evaluation of
the material at hand. With such detachment (contra attachment) comes
real freedom; to the extent that the editor is not beholden to person or
power, office or opinion; he or she is free. Such freedom requires a
moral fibre and trustworthiness that upholds truth and right, whether in
full view of public scrutiny, or in the aloneness of private secrecy.
“Because medical editors bear some of the responsibility for
the reliability of published research and, in turn, for the care
of patients, the health of the public, allocation of resources, and
standards of medical ethics and professional behavior, editors must
be trustworthy. To preserve this trust, an editor must avoid giving
favors, must not be beholden to any special-interest group, and must be
willing to publish articles on controversial subjects, even if they
involve the organization that owns and publishes the journal”.
The media play a central role in
promoting freedom of thought and expression in every society. They offer
opportunities for citizens to access information on relevant political,
economic and cultural information. This information in turn becomes
critical for the growth, development and prosperity of a nation as an
informed citizenry is more apt to contribute to national development.
Public service media constitute one of the key agents for providing
citizens with information, education and entertainment that is free of
commercial, State or political influences and biases.
However, in most African countries,
public service television has been transformed into State broadcasting
where the State has exerted full control and influence on all aspects of
the working of the national broadcaster. This has significantly
restricted the freedom of national broadcasters in their programming,
reporting and operations. In order to ensure that a public service
broadcaster does not function as a State broadcaster, it is essential to
guarantee the editorial independence of national broadcasters. However,
through both overt and covert means, many governments have controlled
television for promoting their own political and economic interests.
Another recent trend, among most national broadcasters, has been to seek
funding through commercial revenue and advertising. This has also
diverted these public service and State broadcasters from their original
mission and mandate.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
In Nigeria, there are three main types
of media ownership namely, Government ownership, Private ownership and
mixed ownership. In the case of government ownership, the media house is
established, controlled and financed by the government, which the
private ownership is when an individual or a group of persons establish,
finance and control the media house. That of mixed ownership is when
both government and private individuals are into some sort of
partnership regarding establishing, financing and controlling the media
The researcher agrees with the ideas of
Nnanyelugo Okon and Ben Agbo authors of “writing for the media society”.
They wrote that “it is obviously true that mass media owners exert a
threatening control medium is managed by a board of directors appointed
by private owners or by a public cooperation established by the
This work will go further to elaborate on media ownership influences on editorial policies in the chapters ahead.
We should understand that, media
ownership influence is exercised through financial control, appointment
of principal staff, and government legislative decrees. In this
circumstance, the media in question are either print or electronics and
taking cognizance of the fact that the nature of ownership of any medium
lies as the determining factor on how the medium shall operate. It is
therefore worthy to note that this ownership pattern will no doubt
influence the editorial policies of such a medium.
In agreement with the dictum that he who
pays the piper, dictates the fone. The media house whether owned by
government, individuals or both would no doubt be made to propagate and
promote the ideas, personalities and projects of the owners and it can
also be achieved through the house styles and editorial policies of the
Editorial policies can be said to be
those plans of actions meant to control the editorial matters of the
media house, adopted by the board Directors and endorsed by the
publisher(s) or owner(s). According to Ben Agbo and Nnanyelugo Okon in
their same text, Editorial policy is the path a newspaper elects to
follow as it answers the two basic questions:
What shall we publish?
How shall we publish?
Worth reference to my case study,
“Announcer Newspaper” which qualifies as a print medium following the
characteristics of newspaper laid down by Nkem Fab Ukozor and Ben Agbo,
authors of Mass communication purpose, principles, and practice. They
wrote quoting a German Schokr, Otta Grota for determining a true
newspaper are as follows:
The newspaper must be published regularly at least once a week
That the newspaper must be mechanically produced, be available to any price.
Vary in content such that the content will interest the larger audience, be published at specified times.
The publisher of “Announcer newspaper”,
Dr. Ezeani has appointed a board of Directors whose duty is to formulate
editorial policies as they (eie those policies) suit him. He
established the newspaper sometime in 2003.
As a politician, (ie the publisher) such
editorial policies have been formulated to favour his political
structure and ideas so as to project him to higher political positions.
The publisher of the announcer newspaper has employed the services of an
editor, who maintains the house style of the newspaper and operates
within the editorial policy limits as formulated by the board.
Still on the “Announcer Newspaper”, the
editor is answerable to the Editor-in-chief who is there to see that the
newspaper operates according to the laid down (editorial) policy. The
editor is expected to resign and leave if he is no longer disposed to
such editorial policies of this paper and not to bend it. Every Monday
morning, there is usually an editorial board meeting at announcer
newspaper conference hall. The meeting is an avenue uses to make
appraisals on the current edition and to resolve on the news to use for
both front and back pages, (lead stories) etc for the next edition.
The Editor will only make his
professional input but must dance to the tone of the publisher though
the Editor-in-chief in terms of editorial matters.
In “Announcer Newspaper”, the editor
will be asked to write the views and ideas of the publisher inform of
editorial and or comments, which stands out invariably to represent as
the voice of the newspaper on any particular issue. Surprisingly, the
editorial or comments may not even be the ideas of the writer (Editor)
but he must do it as directed or he resigns or gets sacked. The
announcer newspaper editorial policy as it concerns stories on
governments ate not static. The newspaper criticizes government when it
sees negative things and turns to praise the same government if it sees
In order words, balance, fairness and
facts can still be associated with the Announcer Newspaper, but not when
it has anything to do with the individual owner. In this case, selfish
motives overweigh decisions and judgments. This has necessitated a
research on the topic media ownership and its influence on editorial
policy with a case study of Announcer Newspaper.
The Announcer Newspaper has reached some
understanding with both state and local governments of Imo state in
such a manner that the medium can be getting some adverts from these
quarters and in this circumstance, the newspaper will no longer hit hard
at the afore- stated in order not to destroy the mass media rapport.
Nevertheless, Editorial policy,
determinants are the nature of readership, proprietorship,
competition/lack of if, Geographical location, economic interest and
political outlook, just like I said earlier, editorial policy is all
about what shall be published and how it shall be published. There
editorial policies are often expressed through the following:
News-stories the paper carries.
Cartoons the paper carries
The paper’s slogan (motto), which is often carried in the nameplate or below the mast- head.
The platform code where the paper enumerates the number of projects or principle for which it stands.
All Newspapers has editorial policies,
which are however influenced by the ownership of the Newspaper.
“Announcer Newspaper”, my case study has its own editorial policy which
are highlighted in the paper and how the ownership of the media has
house is also being influenced is highlighted in the paper.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Based on the research made, sponsorship
of the media house, its control and recruitment of its principal staff
have formed the influential factors consequent upon the editorial policy
of the media house since the owner(s) of the media house usually does
or do the afore-stated factors. The media ownership have therefore in
some ways influenced the editorial policy and this has posed problems to
journalism as a trade.
In this case, the editorial writing has
to function with the policy framework and editorial principles. Nothing
runs the editor down as having the option of either doing it the way the
policy dictates or he resigns or otherwise sacked.
Influence of media ownership on
editorial policy have made many newspapers to collapse in operations and
have also made them to lose their readership grip. In the case of a
Announcer Newspapers, as a privately owned Newspaper, if dies not have
so many policies that usually affect its readership except that its
front and back page stories are centered on Imo state. Often times, it
faces the stiff competition of the national and other local newspapers.
Again, people from other state would
always see the purchase of the newspaper as a waste since it does not
usually spread its tentacles.
According to the staff of “Announcer
Newspaper”, the publisher (owner) brings to production room when it is
already time for production. This delays production of the paper.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
In summary, this research work is a
comparative analysis of tide and guardian newspaper on newspaper
ownership and editorial independence, and to study the correlation
between tide and guardian newspaper. Other research objectives are
listed below as follows:
- This work is aimed at highlighting on ways by which newspaper ownership manages its editorial policy.
- To give some information on the extent (based on research influence)
an editorial policy has gone in destroying journalistic principles.
Vis-à-vis the consequences of such cases.
- It would also act as a meditating factor and would go as much as proffering solution forwards checking these excesses.
1.4 Significance of Study
This research work will present in a
precise manner, newspaper ownership and editorial independence on
writing and publishing. It is believed that the findings of this
research work should provide detailed information on the effects of
newspaper ownership and editorial independence in publication. It is
also expected that the study will benefit newspapers owners, editors,
researchers and the society in general.
The findings of the study should be
useful to editors. It is expected that the findings will expose the
editorial independence in publication and writing and the right to their
selves. By this exposure the editors could acknowledge the limits to
their boundary and judiciary. It is possible that by this outcome the
editors would realistically adjust to the application and policy of
their independence. Subsequently, it will go a long way to enhance the
mass communication and journalism students’ effectiveness in the society
by being capable of carrying out what they have learned, thereby
contributing to the building up of the society at the local, national
and international levels.
The research will also be beneficial to
the researcher. This is because the study will expose the researcher to
so many related areas in the course of carrying out his research. This
will enhance the researcher’s experience, knowledge and understanding on
1.5 Research Questions
In the study, an attempt would be sufficiently made to answer the following questions.
- Does the media ownership factor influence editorial policy of a private (Newspaper) medium?
- Can the job of the journalist in private Newspaper house be guaranteed?
- Can the ethics of journalism be used to check the influence of media ownership, on editorial policy?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
For the course of this research, the
researcher formed some of the hypothesis which will be tested to support
this study. The hypothesis will be tested at 0.05 level of significance
using the chi-square method and correlation analysis. The research
hypothesis are as follows.
H1: Newspaper ownership influences editorial independence and policy of an editor.
H0: Newspaper ownership influences editorial independence and policy of an editor.
H2: Job security of the journalist in private newspaper house can be guaranteed.
H0: Job security of the journalist in private newspaper house cannot be guaranteed.
H3: Ethics of journalism can be used to check the influence of the Newspaper ownership on editorial policy.
H0: Ethics of journalism cannot be used to check the influence of the Newspaper ownership on the editorial policy.
1.7 Definition of Terms
In this area, certain key words will be explained into conceptual and operational definition.
1. MEDIA OWNERSHIP
The act of setting up or establishing a medium by a person or group of persons and or the government.
The pattern of establishment.
2. EDITORIAL POLICY
A guide for the publication of stories in newspapers or magazines.
It is the path a newspaper elects to follow as it answers the two basic questions.
What shall we publish?
How shall we publish it?
In this study, it is obviously seen that
- The media ownership and its influence on editorial policy in a
private newspaper house affect the content of the news the paper
- The establishment of newspaper house and its role is of vital importance to the society.
- The establishment of private newspapers are made for the interest of the owner(s).