The aim of this research
work is to find out the influence of Billboard advertising. In
particular, the study sought to ascertain the extent that the electorate
in Fidei poly exposed to political advertising; which billboard was the
electorate most exposed to in political advertising as well as the
extent that billboard advertising influenced the voting decisions of the
To achieve this, the study used the survey method with the questionnaire as research instrument.
In this work I started the research
problems, set the objective and significance of the study, communicated
the research questionnaire, reviewed some relevant literature, defined
some terms, and hypothesis. In the work, the whole of the given tested
hypothesis was empirically supported.
From the finding, it was observed
that: Billboard advertising is more likely to convey the advertising
messages to the target audience than other form of advertising.
Billboard advertising appeals more to advertisement than other forms of
advertising and position the advertiser quicker in people’s mind than
any other media. Billboard generally influences the target’s decision.
After analyzing these findings and drawing conclusion, the researcher made some recommendations.
Advertising has grown popular as a tool
of academic inquiry, a field of professional practice and an index of
modern business and politics. It has come to assume the center of
modern marketing and it is one of the major forms of promotion on
campaign. Billboard advertising has assumed a wider and prominent
position on political campaign in recent times in Nigeria. Despite
electronic media, billboard advertising got campaign and election on the
This new discovery on campaign has not
only given rise to advertising agencies, that specialized only in
billboards advertising, but also a strong association of billboard
advertising agencies in Nigeria which is recognized by advertisers as a
subsidiary of the Advertising Practitioner Council of Nigeria (APCON).
But as has been articulated by Adeyemi (1969), the constitutional
provisions on freedom of expression can be said to amount only to an
ordered freedom of which cannot be used as a license to spread
communication that debased public morality. However, many of these
ethical principles have in the course of time grown to become statutory
regulation codified laws. Decree 55 of 1988 among other provisions
provides that APCON show regular and control the practice of advertising
in all its aspects and ramifications. It is in this immense and wide
power conferred on it, that APCON developed a code of ethics to guide
and regulate the practice of advertising in Nigeria.
The increase in billboard advertising
underscores the effectiveness of billboard on project promotion.
Billboards ensure frequent and repeated exposure to the advertisement.
Billboards are usually located at points with high vehicle and human
traffic. Consequently, users of such points are regularly exposed to
the advertisement in the board. Secondly, billboard, also offer a high
degree of locational flexibility. In other words, the boards can be
placed where the advertisers actually intended them to be. In addition,
they tend it has lower cost per thousand than most of the other media.
They are usually more cost efficient, especially for the advertiser
with a small budget. Billboard offers the advantage of very good color
reproduction and at the same time it is an effective reminder medium
offer serving as a catalyst for buyers who buy in impulse.
The greatest problems encountered by
advertisers and their agencies with regards to billboards is site
monitoring. Monitoring is usually difficult and so when posters get
torn or washed out, it takes a while to discover and repots. This is
because the site are usually scattered around very far geographic
locations. The posters used on the board usually tedious to print and
post especially when the number of sites to be covered are too many. In
other words, boards make intense creative demands on the agency.
Because they are usually seen in a fleeting second, they have to be
powerfully executed so as to intrude on the passers-bys consciousness.
In this case they tend to function better as reminder media and
therefore cannot serve well as the primary and sole medium for an
advertising campaign. Aside its cost efficient contributes
environmental aesthetic and enduring features of landscape of towns, in
the country. Although the voice of street vendor in Nigeria grows
fainter with each passing year, it is still possible to hear the
mournful call and tinkling bells of the old clothes and junk man, the
call of the itinerant fruit peddler with his push cart, or the street
corner vendors of hot chestnuts. And what will a football game be
without the kids hawking peanuts and soft drinks? Much the same calls
in a different language echoed in the streets.
Again if you will glance town the length
of the streets in Gboko metropolis, you notice that the storekeeper
around the town have taken some pains to make sure they not unobserved
just as the market keepers did in the main market so you can see that
broadcast advertising, point of purchase advertising, and outdoor
advertising (Billboards) have all been around for a long time. but is
wasn’t until the middle ages, with the world shaking advent of the
printing press and moveable type, that advertising began to take the
firm most familiar to as today.
Winstan Fletcher (1979), identifies the
following determinants of the strength of a billboard advertising, such
as, the number of posters put in any given area, the size of the poster,
the specific sitting of the poster and the length of the campaign.
Because of the problem of the more boards in a given area, the greater
the problem of dotter many local authorities regulate the citing of
board as to prevent their indiscriminate location poster come in
standard sizes referred to as “sheets”. The dimensions of a singly
sheet are usually expressed in inches for easy handling and processing.
A single limit of sheet is usually 20 inches wide by 30 inches deep.
The most commonly available poster formats are 16 sheets, 32 sheets and
In addition, there is the painted boards
or bulletin boards, which are hand painted (instead of printed posters)
and typical sizes and 14 feet by 48 feet. Posters cited at busy
locations or junctions with high human and vehicular traffic are often
more effective than those at less endowed locations. Furthermore, the
longer the duration of a campaign the more impact it tends to have.
Outdoor advertising has become a major
advertising medium by advertising firms in Gboko metropolis and an
indispensable source of revenue for Benue state Government. While
advertisers buy spaces in Newspapers and Magazines, for outdoors he
rents cites. In Enugu metropolis, renting a cite centers on an
advertiser the right of having his poster displayed on that size. To do
this, advertiser or his agency will retain an outdoor advertising
company. The advertising companies will have to be usually built and
acquire a particular cite it wants or chooses from the ones the
billboard company supplies. It pays the outdoor agency for the
production of the poster as well as rental fee for the cites. Its media
and client service monitor the posting, to ensure that all the sites
are constantly and clearly posted throughout the duration of the
For all the media enumerated, management
of the advertising operations is very delicate task, since in most
case; advertising represents a significant source of corporate
profitability. For billboard companies particularly, the key task will
entail keeping a tab on advertising agencies and solicitation that they
can use the billboard firm for their campaign. Other task include
monitoring of cites to ensure that posters are in good order and
properly posted, invoicing agencies for cites created and posted,
ensuring prompt payment and prompt payment of rental charges to the
state government via local authorities.
In executing this research, the
researcher will try to identify why billboard advertising seems to be
more popular than other means of advertising in terms of product
promotion in Enugu Metropolis. Also this study will try to find out the
acceptability of billboard advertising in the society. Among other
things, this study also hopes to establish the contribution of
billboards to product promotion and consumption.
1.1 Background of the Study
That the mass media plays a vital role
in the development process of a country is not again saying. The mass
media generally regarded as a channel of communication that are capable
of reaching heterogeneous audience simultaneously with uniform message.
They regularly cover all sorts of issues such as health, music, fine
art, crime, sport, entertainment, political events among others (Meyer,
2002, Soela 2004). The mass media transmits ideas and new information to
target audience in the society. Tosanisunmi (2004) has observed that
the mass media educate, inform and entertain beyond these functions as
they also persuade and catalyze for social mobilization. In other words,
the mass media can be regarded as powerful service of information
because they have the capability to penetrate every segment of society.
They have the ability to disseminate messages about issue, ideas and
Furthermore, the mass media has that
capability to create awareness and knowledge about issues of national
interest. The traditional mass media usually consist of radio,
television, newspaper and magazine while the news media involves the
internet technologies. Contextually, these media have the responsibility
to mobilize for national development. In other words, social
mobilization for development largely depends on the media for success.
Crusade for change and dissemination of useful information against
corruption, bad governance and terrorism depend on the mass media.
Ogwezzy (2010) states that it is a common knowledge that the media is
the engine of mass communication and the avenue through which the public
could be reached.
In the other hand, election is an
important element of democracy; elections enable the individual to
express a sense of belonging to a political system. Elections provide
forum for the discussion of public opinion on important issue. Elections
allow an exchange of influence between leaders and the electorate
(Nwaozuzu 1999:18-22). This statement captures the relevant functions of
the broadcast media in elections which serves as a mobilizing of all
the different people in society and at the same time to co-ordinate the
activities as they are made to express their views about candidates who
are contesting for political position. The broadcast media through their
programmes create avenue through which the people express their views
about candidates. There may be phone calls in programmes like radio
link, state of the Nation, or debate programmer responsible or otherwise
and has made people pass on topical political issues. Also the
broadcast media (Radio and Television) provide platforms through which
individuals or member of society contribute on issues of public
interest. They may be based on stewardship of political offices holders
wishing to recontest for elections or it may have to do with electoral
law that are perceived to be capable of fermenting violence. Ebo
(1997:132) maintain that: the broadcast media play decisive roles in the
lives of the citizens no matter where they are located and whatever
their stage of development. The broadcast media are the most potent and
sensitive sector of the communication industry considering the reach and
influence they have on their viewers and listeners.
This statement succinctly explains which
relevance the broadcast media is to all the components of the society,
a power it acquired from its inception and not only during political
campaigns. It is this power that grants it the ability to mobilize
people and make them participate in mass in political processes. To
further explain the power of the broadcast media in mobilizing the
citizens towards conforming to expected behavior and participation in
electoral processes. The media force attends to certain issues, they
build up images of political figures, they are constantly presenting
objects, suggesting what individuals should think about, know about,
having feelings about. Clang an Lang 1959:103- 112).
This means the dominant thought that the
people carry about, is influenced by the media‟s constant projection of
what they should be thinking especially concerning the electoral
process. This comment conforms to the agenda setting thereby which
provides explanation to what or how the media can sway the behavior of
the people in the society. Given this power therefore, it will not be
out of place to say that, the failure of success of any electoral
process lies largely in the hands of the mass media, to which the
broadcast media is a strong component. Innis (2003:298) in support of
this state that; while an unbiased and responsible system can contribute
to the success of the electoral process, a bias and irresponsible media
contributes to the failure of elections.
On the same power of the media,
Orhewere‟s (2003:140) argues; the Nigerian media in the past did not
show enough commitment to professional ethic there by contributing to
electoral crisis in Western Nigerian in 1965 and subsequent elections.
The relevance of Orhewere‟s comment is that not only does the Nigerian
Broadcast media posses‟ enormous powers, but its role as an instrument
of mobilization dates back to as far as 1965. In other words, the media
has been a very active instrument in democratic processes in Nigeria
over a stretch of time, until the military dictatorship took the shine
from it. However, with the re-entry of civilian rule in 1999, the media
viz the broadcast media have resumed its active role of mobilizing the
populace for elections. The media or broadcast media played very
important role in elections written 1999 and 2003, Therefore, to print
out that, the roles the media often plays is either responsible or
otherwise and has made people pass judgment or often ascribed to failed
outcome of elections ascribed to failed outcome of elections to it. That
is the success or failure of elections are often judged by the role of
the media for instance, Chinua Achebe (1993:78) allege that; the two
previous at conducting election under civilian rule generated crisis,
which culminated to the collapse of the republics due to several
electoral frauds some of which allegedly were aided and abetted by the
media. Chinua Achebe‟s comment however begs for serious questions at
to, how does a watch dog become a conspirator. In other words, how does a
media aid and abet fraud, perhaps they will form another basis for a
study. However, it is important to note that, indeed the broadcast media
has very strong roles to play in elections. To this Burns (1977:45)
state that; The media in a civilized society occupy a very important and
powerful position with capacity that can easily influence the opinion
of the masses. While Rivers (1971) state that, it is expected to be the
condolence of the people where divergent views are expressed in order to
serve as a check against autocratic and totalitarian rule
Therefore, it is against the above
background that this project seeks to examine the influence of billboard
advertising on electioneering campaigns for students using Fidei
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
The role of media in every society is
often to educate, inform and enlighten. It is assumed that, where those
roles are adequately carried out, elections are bound to be free and
fair. However, in Nigeria, several elections have been marred the
question is how the mass media has mobilized the Nigerian populace. How
come electoral processes have not been successful? Is the broadcast
media system not commensurate to other media systems elsewhere? These
and many others are questions that this study hopes to identify.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
- To ascertain the level of equal media coverage given to political parties to candidates.
- To ascertain the significant relationship between mass media & electioneering campaign.
- To ascertain the significant level of mobilization of mass media towards elections.
- To determine the significant level of billboard advertisement to students electioneering campaign.
1.4 Research questions
The following question will be used to guide this research work.
- To what extent do the media educate the electorates on electoral process?
- The Media (billboard) enlighten the populace on the political candidates?
- Is there significant relations between billboard coverage and election results?
- Which of this characteristics of electorates affect the billboard coverage of Election?
- To what extent does electioneering campaign on billboard affects the results of elections?
- Does the media give equal coverage to political parties during elections?
- The media (billboard/posters) set Agenda for public Discussion towards Election?
1.5 Significance of the Study
On the completion of this project the
end result will benefit academics, students of communication studies and
other researchers that may want to carry out further research on this
1.6 Scope of the Study
The scope of this research work will
only cover the people within Fidei Polytechnic Gboko. This focus will be
on the political campaign of the students within the school.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
The research work may be faced with time
& fund constraints being an academic based research. The time
allocated for this study is not enough as in combining the work on this
study with daily academics routine. Also, the study will be limited to
some areas due to the problems of funds, shortage of texts, journals and
information relevant to the study.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
1. Impact: This refers to a significant or strong influence on massmedia towards election.
2. Television broadcasting: This
can be defined as the dissemination of information, idea, opinion,
before, among others through the use of television medium.
3. Electioneering Campaign: This
refers to the act or process of soliciting for support or votes for a
given political party or candidate during election.