seeks to investigate customer’s perception of GSM interruptive advertisement in
Nigeria. The study adopted cognitive dissonance theory of mass communication.
The research methodology used in this research is the survey research of which
questionnaires were administered to 120 respondents in Abraka. The research
shown that the perception of GSM customers towards interruptive GSM SMS adverts
is disturbing; due to the unending SMS adverts. The results of the research
revealed that the perception of GSM users is that of annoyance, irritating
invasion of privacy. The research recommends that GSM service provider should
understand the perception and attitude of the customers before sending
interruptive SMS advert. Nigeria communication Commission (NCC) should regulate
the number of SMS advert which each service provider can send in a day. Service
providers should send important SMS advert that is most needed by the
customers. The SMS advert should be simple and easy.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover page - - - - - - - - i
Abstract - - - - - - - - - ii
Certification - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgements - - - - - - - v
Table of Contents - - - - - - - vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - 10
1.3 Objectives of the Study - - - - - 11
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - - 12
1.5 Significance of the study - - - - - 13
1.6 Scope of the Study - - - - - - 14
1.7 Definition of Terms - - - - - - 14
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW/THEORETICAL
2.1 Literature Review - - - - - - 16
2.2 Theoretical framework - - - - - 26
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Design of the Study - - - - - - 30
3.2 Population of the Study - - - - - 31
3.3 Sample Size - - - - - - - 31
3.4 Sampling Techniques - - - - - 31
3.5 Instrument of Data Collection - - - - 31
3.6 Procedure of data collection - - - - 32
3.7 Techniques of Data Analysis - - - - 32
3.8 Limitation of the Study - - - - - 32
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
Presentation - - - - - - 34
Analysis - - - - - - - 53
4.3 Discussion of Findings - - - - - 59
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - 61
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - 62
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - 62
REFERENCES - - - - - - - - 64
APPENDIX (Questionnaire) - - - - - 67
to the study
According to Anil (2013:28) “Advertising
via mobile devices or mobile advertisement is defined as the usage of
interactive wireless media (such as cellular phones and pages, cordless
telephones, personal digital assistances, two-way radios, baby crib monitors,
wireless networking systems, GPS- based locators and maps) to transmit
advertising messages to customers in form of time and location sensitive,
personalized information with the overall goal to promote goods and services”.
Whatever medium used in marketing of goods and services even ideas, advertising
is the creation of public knowledge of a particular need of the public. Tarun
Kant, et al (2010:98) “Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation
and promotion of ideas, goods or service by any identified sponsored”.
According to the views of Nwabueze, Ezebuenyi and Ezeoke (2012:42) on
advertising “the concept has been viewed from diverse perspective by various
scholars, professionals and bodies. One of the acceptable definitions is that
given by Advertiser Practitioners Council of Nigeria APCON, in its code of advertising practice
which states that advertising is a form of communication through the media about
products, services, or ideas paid for by an identified sponsor”. The bottom
line of the communication in advertisement is to influence or cause a
behavioural change of patronage attitude by consumers towards different
products of same utility. Advertising is gear to stimulate demand by creating
awareness of a products and services. As a communication phenomenon,
advertising plays a vital role in the development of business of buying and
selling. This vital role is demonstrated easily in sphere of information which
is central to the advancement of humanity. Okoro (1988) state that advertising
is a channel for information dissemination of products, services and ideas,
movement and places, the importance of advertising to human society cannot be
overemphasized. According to Belch and Belch (2001)” the major tripod stand
upon which every advertising industry leans on are advertisers (or clients
advertising agencies and media organization)”.
Information technology affects all most
everything about human life. From business to daily life; it shapes and
reshapes not only commerce but also the way in which organizations implement
their marketing strategies. It offers new dimensions and strategies and
customer/organization interactions. Anil (2013:28) “the successful application
of information technology that makes the “anytime-to-anyplace” communication
possible”. The technological advance allows increased mobility and extended
services even to remote areas. Since the introduction of short message services
SMS, they has been an increase in the use of SMS in advertising communication.
According Mbox inc. (2010), “the usage of SMS continues to grow because it is
simple, easy to use and has enormous reach. Ultimately, consumers like to have
choice in a way they communicate with business and increasingly consumers are
turning to SMS”.
(2012) “the history of global (GSM) in Nigeria is traceable to the deregulation
of telecommunication industry which gave birth to the GSM revolution from the
year 2001 till the present (11 years now) under the civilian administration of
president Olusegun Obasanjo”. Which is about 15 years to this year 2016. Before
the introduction of Global system for mobile communication (GSM), the Nigeria
telecommunication limited was saddled with the responsibility of providing means
of communication basically the landline which was bedeviled by corruption and
misappropriation of fund.
The foremost GSM network provider that
came on board was ECONET (now Airtel). It was formerly lunched on the 6th
August 2001 and MTN Nigeria follow suit almost immediately. It is imperative to
mention that the introduction of global system for mobile communication network
provider such as Etisalat, reformed Econet (Airtel Nigeria) and Global Com
Nigeria limited brought about huge transformation in the telecommunication
Nigeria commenced commercial operation on 23rd October 2008 with a promise to
deliver innovation and quality service in Nigeria, since then Nigerian gas
continues to witness its innovative services. Etisalat redefined speed with the
roll-out of the urge 375G HSPA network and it has continued to prove it
innovative company keen to give its subscribers the best possible experience at
the most affordable price. This innovation led to the 12 million subscribers. It
covers 36 states. In March 2009, the National Communication Commission (NCC)
adjudged Etisalat as Nigeria best network and base on quality of service
induces measured by the regulatory body, in 2011 after a similar assessment,
Etisalat network was once again rated best. To date Etisalat Nigeria has won
several industry awards for its innovation and quality service delivery. Some
of these include; Brand of the year, fast growing GSM Company of the year best
marketing company (Lindedinhttps//www.now you are talking)
Visafone was incorporated in Nigeria
on June 20th, 2007 following the acquisition of cellom received its unified
access. Service license as a telecom operation form the Nigeria Communication
Commission (NCC) on August. Although each of these network providers has its
own peculiarity in terms of packages but all are also most similar in tariff
war or SMS advert.
SMS marketing or advertising is the
use of SMS medium as a communication channel between brands and end users that
guarantee direct interaction with users. It’s a cost effective advertising
strategy with unique, though streaming
selling point, as the readers, though forced to read the message, eventually
finds the words sinking into their mind sub-consciously. The advent of
telecommunication in 2001 has brought to many individuals the opportunity to
have a mobile phone. Due to the increase number of Nigeria population with
mobile business ventures and even the telecommunication providers adopt the use
of short message service to advertise their product and service.
Tarun Kant, et al (2010:98)
“Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of
ideas, goods or service by any identified sponsored”. The aim is to stimulate
consumer minds. Many businesses have concentrated their resources on
advertising in order to stimulate demand of their products and services.
Internet, telemarketing and SMS advertisement have brought a drastic change in
advertisement in an advent of win-win strategy; SMS has become the recent best
mean to advertise. This is a result of consumer’s time management. Mbiadjo and
Djeumene (2005:21) the increasing penetration level of the use of mobile
telephone in the world, notably in developed economies since the 90s and the
mobile technological breakthroughs and means of communication are some of these
elements contributing to the birth of the mobile marketing concepts”. The use
of bulk SMS platform by individuals and organization has increase drastically.
Banks and other organizations engage in consumer relationship make use of SMS
to sell their products to potential customers. The telecommunication service
providers also make use of SMS to advertise some packages of the service
advertisement include: Get brand new songs by MC galaxy. For GO gaga, FT
Cynthia Morgan, Text 0032206 to 4100, or for Komolop Cholop; Text 8 to 4100 to
get “ celebrity Girlfriend” by Falz FT Reekado; season 2 just get better find
out what happens when SAINTS get involved in scandals in scandals amongst saint
Season 2, a digital soap opera on MTN mobile newspaper. Etisalat SMS
advertisement include: Breaking local news free for 7 days to get it text BC to
655 for May.com. now #30/weekly afterwards for more products Dial *655#; Dear
…. Health is wealth. Get 5 free days of Health and wellness sms and then #50
5days text SUB to 38777 at no cost.
advert include: Reply bible to 54884 to confirm in daily study of the word of
God; Enjoy chatting on Twitter Wechat, 2go, Eskimi, Facebook and other social networks
with for #200 for 30days dial *990# now.
1.2 Statement of the problem
There has been observation by GSM
users in Nigeria of the frequent advertisement dropping into the mobile phone
of customers. This observation has brought different perception from customers
of GSM operators. Some GSM customers have accused GSM operators of sending
incessant adverts with short message services thereby interrupting them. Other
also accused GSM operators for allowing individual business organizations for
using the GSM SMS to advertise their products and services. These allocations
have given them liberty to bombard the GSM customers with unending and
repetition of advert through short messages services.
While accusing the GSM operators for
sending deceptive SMS advert which after application GSM customers would be
unfoundly charge to subscribing to the adverts, customers have been complaining
that the interruption such as alerting for unnecessary attention; disturbing
meetings; disturbing sleep and running of mobile phone battery. The problem
posed by these accusations can only be solved by investigating the customer’s
perception of GSM interruptive advert in Nigeria. This study, using the
questionnaire will look into the perception of customers towards GSM adverts.
1.3 Objective of the study
This study has the overall purpose
of investigating the customer perception of GSM interruptive adverts in
Nigeria. It will specifically, study the following
To ascertain the frequency of
GSM adverts sent to GSM users by GSM operators
Determine the nature of
interruption of GSM advert to GSM users.
To determine the attitude of
GSM users towards GSM adverts
To find out the perception of
GSM users towards interruptive GSM adverts.
1.4 Research questions
The research questions of this study
seek to put the research work in a frame of work that is position to guide the
research. The following are the research questions of this study.
What is the frequency of GSM
adverts sent to GSM users by GSM operators?
What is the nature of
interruption of GSM advert to GSM users?
What is the attitude of GSM
user towards GSM adverts?
4. What is
the perception of GSM user towards interruptive GSM adverts?
1.5 Significance of the Study
will be beneficial to GSM operators and business organization that advertise
their products and service to their prospect and existing customers. It will
form a handy material of customer’s perception on telemarketing and
teleadvertising for advert and strategic marketing communication planning. It
will enhance GSM operator’s articulations of SMS advertising and the impact on
GSM customers. The research will also provide an opportunity to study the
impact of GSM in Nigeria economy.
1.6 Scope of the Study
In examining the perception of customers
of GSM towards the interruptive GSM advertisement, the study will focus on the
GSM users in Abraka. Since it will not be possible to study all the GSM users
in Nigeria, this study will be confined to the study and investigation of
Abraka population. Reasoning being that Abraka is a town with complete
population demography which students, workers, elders, adults and teenagers
etc. Investigation will be confined to cover this environment.
1.7 Definition of Terms/Concepts
Person who patronize an organization’s
goods and service.
The attitude which people develop
towards something or person.
Creation of public awareness of a
particular product and services by an organization to stimulate demand.
This is regarded as a motive to halt a process.
Global service for mobile is a
telecommunication network provider for cell phones communication
This is an acronym to short message
service platform for texting message through GSM.
Communication through telephone
phone: The cell phones that is handy