The man trust of this study is to find out the role
of radio in mobilizing Nigerian women in politics. This is studied in relation
to other media of communication.
We became interested in this project since 4th
March, 2004, when some of us listened to the review on the international
women’s day on COSMO FM with the title “Nigerian Women Since 1985”. There were
so many women liberation that spoke especially on the role women play in the
socio-economic and political development of Nigeria.
We made a proposal that comprise of our interests,
objectives, and importance of the study; Research methodology research
problems, research hypothesis and definition of terms etc. We used survey
method in conducting this study. The major objective is to ascertain if there
is any significant difference between radio and other media as sources of
political information to women.
Hypothesis one (H1) postulated that Nigerian women
tend to be getting more of their political information from radio than any
other medium of communication. It was empirically supported with a calculated
value of X2 = 77.04, as against a table value X2 = 11.345. Thus Nigerian women
tend to be getting more of their political information from radio than any
other medium of communication.
The second hypothesis (H2) postulates that Nigerian
women tend to prefer news from radio to political news from opinion leaders. It
received empirical support with a calculated value of X2 = 81.621 as against a
table value of X2 = 11.345. In essence of our respondents are pf the view that
Nigerian women tend to prefer news from radio to political news form opinion
The third hypothesis stated, “Women who are exposed
to political news tend to be more influenced than those not exposed, in their
political opinion formation. It has as well received statistical support with a
calculated value of X2 = 114.08 as against a table value of X2 = 11.345. It
then means that Nigerian women that are exposed to political news tend to be
more influenced in their political opinion formation than those not exposed.
The fourth and the final hypothesis of the study
postulates that radio tends to be more accessible to Nigerian women than any
other medium of communication. The hypothesis is empirically supported with a
calculated value of X2 = 98.66 as against the table value of 11.345. This means
that the audience believes that radio is more accessible to Nigerian women than
any other medium of communication.
In general analysis, our findings are in line with
our postulations in literature review that among the various medium of
communication, radio is the most veritable tool of mobilizing Nigerian women
into politics. This is because it tends to be fast and immediate in delivering
their messages to their target audience than any other medium of communication.
Recommendations were given on how other studies
should be carried out and how radio should be equipped, modernized, privatized
and used to enhance its use in mobilization of women into politics.
Background of the study
The statement of problem
Objective of the study
Significance of the study
The scope of study
The limitation of the study
Definition of terms
Sources of literature
Radio as a mobilization tool
Nigerian women in politics
Summary of literature review
ANALYSES AND RESULTS
Data analysis (introduction)
Data distribution and analysis
Interpretation and discussion
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This study, the role of radio in mobilizing Nigerian
women into politics will look into the role played by radio as a medium of mass
communication in galvanizing and preparing Nigerian women into politics
especially towards participating in this on going transition programme.
There are so many other communication media like the
festival, gongs, drums, and town crier. But in view of how the channels could
be used in performing the role of mobilizing Nigerian women into politics,
radio is more effective in getting messages to its target audience (Nigerian
women). Though the magazine and newspaper, for their non-transient feature
would have helped, but it is found difficult for women to afford it. Infact
average Nigerian women can not afford to spend their income in buying newspaper
and magazines just to get political information. Hence radio could be used as
last and best resort to reach Nigerian women in case of wide reach and
transcend language problem/literacy problem. This why during one of her
lectures Mrs. Ukozor stressed that through integration, mass media can turn the
whole world into a “global village”. Radio as a mass media does the same work.
Also Television is a very expensive communication
gadget that cannot be afforded by every family in Nigeria.
A set of traditional communication system cannot
work for the nation because of so many ethnic groups in Nigeria. There is no
unification of traditional communication system in Nigeria. Many Nigerian women
are living in urbanization so it is ineffective to disseminate political
information to women through the use the traditional communication media
Elelstan A.G. (2000) in his study about audiences
concluded that the audiences evaluated sources of information in terms of
content, television in breath of perception and radio in availability.
Hence radio for its availability characteristics is
always handy to these women.
Again N. Akpan (1999) in mass communication
in Nigeria. Book of reading (ed) (Nwuneli) says that the public is entitled
to all facts in a political situation and that of the basis of those facts; it
can make its decision. Therefore these women if informed about political news
tend to be politically aware.
Introduction to mass communication (Agee,
Warrant, Kendall) by Noelle Neumann (1985) says that “real life is
different from laboratory controlled studies, the media are so ambiguous that
it is difficult for a person to escape a massage. Repetitive massages have
reinforced impact and news stories are so much the same that there is few
option for selective perception. However, the media for its agenda setting role
and using radio to disseminate information repeatedly about politics. These
Nigerian women tend to be influenced by listening to these repetitive political
messages, hence develop the habit of liking politics.
The mass media generally perform six conventional
functions to the audience. They are education, information, entertainment,
socialization, survellant, and cultural transmission. Ben Agbo stated these
roles during his lecture with year two students (2004). Radio as a medium
generally performs the same role; radio uses these roles in mobilizing Nigerian
women into politics.
According to Edwin Ude (HOD) during his lectures
with the class while in ND1, the ‘Radio reaches places where television cannot
reach. The cities, even the rural areas feel the power of this medium. No
wonder old men and women don’t joke with their battery radio. Radio as a
mass medium-collect, store, process and disseminate political information,
which the Nigeria women require.
The radio as entertainment channel entertains
Nigerian women through the chips of information and political giggles in the
radio. Entertainment gives by radio to Nigerian women these women on doing
their work easily, fast and simultaneously with radio entertainment. Women also
memorize these political giggles and sing them in other to relieve boredom.
The socialization need of the radio agree with the
Nigerian women on a particular candidate or politician to vote for. Radio
exposes every thing concerning a candidate and then the audience (Nigerian
women) will then accept the person they want. Thereby making this women to
socialize in the community ‘they are.
The radio as surveillance channel, here the radio
plays the role of watchdog. According to Ben Agbo during his lectures with your
one students (2003) “states that watch dog role of the press is and adversarial
to the government”. This is in effect that radios investigate the candidate
very well and watch the present government for the betterment of the country.
Radio promotes culture of the country. It is through
radio that you will hear about the culture of almost all Nigeria ethnic groups.
In radio you will hear certain programmes that are done in so many languages.
Infact different language in communities like Udi ndee, Awgu unu ejee, Onitcha
ado ndonuoo, Awka demenu. During such programmes radio announces the political
aspirants and people that have high post in the government.
Introduction to mass communication states
that the media also help in the development of culture by awakening and
stimulating the imagination and aesthetic creativity of individuals, thus
leading to the precaution of cultural air facts. Radio, “As a medium
disseminate cultural and artistic products for the purpose of preserving the
past heritage of the people. The status conferral is another role of the radio
that is when radio confers status and legitimacy on political leader and issue.
Here radio is setting the political agenda for the Nigerian women by deciding
what political topics Nigeria women talk about.
According to sandman et all (1976). The
editorial decision that a particular event is not news is a self-fulfilling
judgment; if the news media ignore it, then it cannot be news. Conversely, any
event given major play in the mass media becomes by definition of a major
event… In this sense, even when the media do not tell us what to think, they
tell us what to think about.
An example is what we have in the network news. The
NTA Network and other daily’s has been announcing how powerful Dr. Dora
Akunyili (Mrs.) is, such kind of announcement raises high the women status and
inspire Nigerian women into politics. Dr. Dora Akunyili is the present Director
The researcher had an interview with the former
chairman of Nkanu West Local Government Mrs. Evelyn Chukwu about what motivated
her into politics. Mrs. Chukwu said that she got motivated from the various
political messages she hears from the radio about the on going political
‘She went further to say that women who came to vote
for her during the election proper, got mobilized during her political campaign
through the radio, and felt that her position or a change in government will
bring them a radical development change. The enemas turn up of female voters
made her to win.
Meanwhile, this study will look into the critics of
radio credibility about radio information; especially of political news
messages. This aside it will also tackle the various critics why women since
the inception of Nigerian independence (1960s) and Nigerian political eras have
been showing head above the water to compete with the male counterparts in
THE STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
All over the world, the media have been regarded as
veritable tools of political socialization and mobilization. Among the
developing countries especially, radio has been singled out as the most
veritable tool of mobilizing people into action be it politics, developmental
n Nigeria, both before and after she gained
independence; women have not been fully taking part in the political game of
the country. The very few women that are particularly conscious, according to
chief Mrs. Ebun, Oyaghola, minister of national planning (1992) in her address
to the intra parliamentary “Have contributed to the event handing over of
power to people and will always be remembered as some of the pioneering
landmark of the great journey to political independence by this great nation”.
Some other women that participated in politics
include Chief Mrs. Ramson Anikulaopo Kuti, Mrs. Margret Ekpo, Mrs,.
Elizabeth Okaro, Prof. Ikeji Ani clark and other women of substance that have
participated in politics.
The status conferral media especially the radio have
been identified to be responsible for their inspiration, motivation and
It is in tight of this political apathy among
Nigerian women that the researcher wants to find out the following research
What role does the radio play in the mobilization of
women into politics?
From which medium does Nigerian women get their
Which sources of political information does Nigerian
How does exposure to political information influence
How accessible are radio to Nigeria women?
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of the study will focus on finding out the role of radio
in mobilizing Nigerian women for political participation in the country.
To find out how Nigerian women radio listeners views political
III. To find out why some
Nigerian women are suffering political apathy.
IV. To find out the medium
Nigerian women prefer getting their political information from.
To find out how Nigerian women that are exposed to political news are
influenced into political participation.
VI. To find out the medium that
are most accessible to Nigerian women.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is expected that after this study, Nigerian radio
broadcasters will know the best techniques involved in packaging political
information that will be able to catalyze, stimulate, mobilize, and inspire
Nigerian women into participating in politics.
Also the study will be of relevance to students,
studying communication and its paradigms because, it will enrich their
knowledge in determining how to disseminate political information and get
effective feed backs from Nigerian women, especially when they go into the
Lectures will also benefit from this study because,
the areas and ways that students need to be though about how to package
political information will be made clear in the study.
In all, the study will be of relevance to the
government because it will make a policy statement on the need for adequate
funding for radio station, as the most veritable tool or medium of mobilizing
women into politics.
Do Nigerian women get most of their political information from radio
more than any other medium?
Do Nigerian women prefer political news from radio to
news they get from opinion leaders?
How does exposure to political news influence women on
their opinion formation in Nigerian politics?
Does objectivity of reporting affect the listener ship
of radio political information?
Do the Nigerian women have access to radio than other
medium of communication?
H1 Nigerian women tend to be getting more of their
political information from radio than any other medium of communication?
H0 There is no difference? Between radio and other
medium as a source of political information to women.
H2 Nigerian women tend to prefer political news from
radio to political news from opinion leaders.
H0 There is no difference on the Nigerian women’s preference
of political information from either radio or opinion leader.
H3 Women w
Ho are exposed to political news tend to be more
influenced than those not exposed in political opinion formation.
H0 There is no difference between those exposed to
political news and those not exposed in political opinion formation.
H4 Radio tends to be more accessible to Nigerian
women than any other medium of communication.
H0 There is no difference between the accessibility
of radio and other mass communication channels to Nigerian women.
THE SCOPE OF STUDY
The study shall treat only the role of radio in
mobilizing Nigerian women into participation in politics. The study is a very
wide one that comprises the whole of Nigerian women.
It is limited geographically to four main areas in
Enugu because of financial problem, lack of time and inadequate material, I can
not cover the whole states in Nigeria.
In effect, the four main areas to be covered are
Mgbidi-Awgu, Amechi Awkunanaw, Obeagu, and Independence layout Enugu. These
areas shall constitute the researcher’s sample population in each of these for
areas represents almost the whole of Nigerian women.
THE LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is focused on mobilizing and participation
of Nigerian women in political news on radio. The focus in not on the rate of
usage of radio etc, since an average of about 60-70 of Nigerian women listen to
Also, the study will be on pure political news and
programmes, with exception of other news.
The study is centered on Nigerian women. Due to the
topic of the study it shall not study women globally.
Finally, the scientific nature of the sample and the
standard of measuring instrument (questionnaire) will help to generalize the
DEFINITION OF TERMS
DEFINITION: An audio medium of
Communication that can be reached.
DEFINITION: The percentage number of radio
that Nigerian women use in getting her information.
CONCEPTIONAL: To assemble people into
readiness for group
OPERATIONAL: The number of women that
radio has galvanized
CONCPTIONAL: Drawing a judgment of a
with respect for merit.
OPERATIONAL: Forming opinions concerning
political news in
CONCEPTIONAL: People who direct judgment
to women with respect to merit
OPERATIONAL: People who direct women
or news concerned with politics.
that are about the political news in
EXPOSURE TO POLITICAL NEWS
CONCEPTIONAL: The act of someone being
exposed to receiving
number of Nigerian women that expose
themselves to political
issue in Nigeria.