Communication is central to all human
activities. The claim that we cannot communicate receive scholarly applause.
However, there are people who seem to
be neglected when we began to discuss communication and information flow. Those
in the urban cities are always better informed to the detriment of the
It is an irony that while the aim to
reach out the grassroots and properly highlight the development problems of the
people, remains the driving force for the rapid expansion of radio facilities,
the medium has continued to be critized as being too urbanized in content and
According to Moemaka (1981:34),
The impact of radio diminishes as one gets
away from the cities into the rural area, while the rural dwellers exist mainly
as an eave – dropping audience.
Fortunately, one of the outcome of
seem Mac Bride, Commission of Enquiry (1980) on information flow, is that rural
people who produce bulk of the food, thereby enhancing the growth of the
economy, should be given urgent attention in information dissemination.
Izuora (1993) notes that programmes
have been designed and carried out to improve health conditions, promote
non-informal education, ensure cultural promotion, civic education, and the
improvement of agricultural production. According to him programme managers and
policy makers admit that through single, drama, documentaries, news and talk
programmes, radio is being effectively used to reach the grassroots.
Our concept of the rural man is that
person who is confined to his little community, he does not know what happens
around him and the outside world.
This researcher found out that an Nzam
Man (In Anambra West L.G.A. Anambra State), is a typical rural man.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
of the study
of the Research Problem
of the study
of the study
Hypotheses and Null Hypotheses
and Operational Definitions
of the Study
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
of Literature Review
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
of the Pilot Study
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULT
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR FURTHER STUDY
for further study
OF THE STUDY
work is designed to study how rural dwellers utilize radio in comparison with
television message to effect social change.
communication channels, like the inter personal communication, traditional
communication or what Frank Ugboajab called (Oramedia), newspaper and magazines
are not quite effective as the radio and television especially in the much
desired rural development. Those who found fault in the face – to – face
communication and oramedia, did so due the lack of persuasion and inadequate
coverage characteristics of them. For the newspaper and magazine, the high
level of illiteracy prevalent in the rural areas constitute an impediment to
the messages since the illiterate ruralite cannot read and even when the messages
are coded or written in his own language.
further establish the inadequacies of the oramedia, Ikechukwu E. Nwosu (1990)
in his article “An overview of the Relationship Between Communication and
Rural/National Development” in mass communication and National Development
(ed), said that “The problem in employing these media of traditional
communication as potent instrument of development communication lies more in
the area of changing the attitude of the communicators, policy makers and
researchers toward them. We also need to improve the level of massage storage,
retrieval and replicability among these oramedia forms. It lies more in
expanding our understanding of their functions, nature, content and uses, and
may be coming up with standard technical vocabulary for describing its various
forms in our various communities”.
radio and television in this regard, are the most effective means of reaching
the rural dwellers, and to effect social and development changes in these
neglected or totally forgetten rural areas.
Nzam Community in Anambra West Local Government area, in Anambra state, radio
set are more easily affordable – hence found in most homes. Even in the rice
farm’s, yam farm, in the river fishing, an Nzam man is seen with his transistor
radio, conscious to get the giot of the day from his favourite radio station
who is ever-ready to broadcast in his language of understanding.
sets, on the other hand, are owned by some well-to-do individuals, whet her
literate or illiterate. Though Nzam community is characterized by
non-availability of electricity those that own the television sets, make use of
the electric generating plants, and chargeable batteries to operate the
to this community, television ownership is not confined to literate class, as
illiterate but well-to-do villagers own television as luxury, capable of
providing relaxation from the stresses of the daily life.
doubt, in his “mass media organisation and management” lecture, Nnamdi Okewa of
the development of mass communication E.S.U.T. Enugu, maintain that:
Most Yoruba purchase television sets not
just for the luxury of it, but for the sake of Babasala’s drama, which provides
an excellent comic relief to the Yoruba man after his activities during the
study compares radio and television messages as agent of rural development of
Nzam community in Anambra.
researchers in this field, confined themselves to the study of urban and rural
dwellers in terms of media exposure. But this research aims at specifically
finding out which of the two mass media of communication – radio or television
is mostly used by the Nzam Community in Anambra, in obtaining development
information. We also intend to study the two media in the daily life of this
rural people. We also, will find out whether the community embarked on any
rural development project, and what roles the radio played as against the audio
– visional – television.
mobilization, this study found out the role played by radio based on the ban
placed on importation of foreign products eg Textile, Can Foods, Flour, Sugar,
Foreign Shoes etc as it affected the unabilitants of Nzam as compared to
is quite undisputable that rural development as a socio-economic phenomenon is
not a new as the current emphasis on it portrays. It is as old as the rural
communities themselves. These communities have no doubt recorded some degree of
development in the past; but to what extent and through which means?
rate of development have been so slow it they either been unnoticed or
neglected or decades. This unfortunate situation unabatedly could be attributed
to lack of suitable mess media.
the availability of more sophisticated and well directed mass media, like radio
and television the ruralities, especially Nzam community, now sings a different
tune of music that tune is rural development.
rural man is not raw as we think, however, he may not understand what he is
doing if he is not adequately informed and persuaded. He wants to hear from the
authentic medium (radio), and see it done through the television, especially in
his native language. It is thus not a sure that the rural man rushers to his or
set whenever and wherever he hear his village pronounced on the radio.
1.2 THEORETICAL FRAME WORK
of infrastructural facilities like good roads, electricity, pipe-born-water,
hospitals, schools, among others, are for almost permanent in the rural areas
especially in Nigeria.
point above, make life difficult in the rural areas, hence the present urban
migration. But with the present of the radio and television, government have
been called upon to develop the rural areas and people through the provision of
these infrastructures to them. The call comes on daily bases.
world develop because people ask why, and because the world is full of
complexities. In this study “The Role of Radio and Television in Rural
Development”, the researcher used two suitable theories to that effect.
are: THE DEVELOPMENT THEORY AND AGENDA –SETTING THEORY.
scientist considered Developmental theory because we in the developing world
need information and communication to effect change and bring out rural
the other hand, the Agenda – setting is a situation where the mass media (Radio
and Television) tell the rural people what to do, how and the importance of
doing such in order to bring development.
OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
a traditional African Society, communities undertook various form of
development projects, these projects includes village hall, construction of
access roads to farm – settlements, neighbouring villages and towns, and other
to this aforementioned projects are the provision of good drinking water,
building of modern school, cottage hospitals, and health centres, post offices
and even modern markets and electrification project.
of ten the execution of such projects depend on effective leadership of the
town and village heads (chief) and available resources of the community, and
their level of awareness.
in the present circumstances, communities are beginning to be exposed to
different influences of development. Government project are not found at every
nook and crary in different rural communities. This is to say that our
government have regarded these hardworking rurlaities as isolated or totally
forgotten, especially as the government faces austere or harsh economic
electricity supply does not exist in Nzam community, the well-to-do individuals
in this community make use of electric generating plants for their television
sets, while others make use of chargeable motor batteries to that effect. To
this community, television ownership is not confined to literate class, as
illiterate but well-to-do villagers own television as luxury goods. Therefore,
the community has exceeded the UNESCO’s, mark of 2 television receivers per 50
the usual village life, children and adults visit the homes of television
owners to watch the latest in the days program. This helps them to relax their
nerves after the days farming activities and other jobs. To those who cannot go
to the homes of the well-to-do individuals or that of their relatives that has
the television sets, the story of each days comes to them on second hand basis.
To them, the much desired satisfaction and influenced in not there.
the other hand, the radio transistor is relatively low in cost, appears in
various sizes and broadcasts in the language under-stand able to the community.
Radio transistor is found in 1 of every 5 inhabitants of Nzam community.
Therefore, the radio has become to a great number of Nzam people, a household
property and companion. Companion in the sense that while the rice farmer does
his tilling and planting, he has a transistor radio by his side providing him
with information, jokes and important government announcements. He is also
doing that in expectation that one of his relatives or friend could send a
request programme to him through the Anambra Broadcasting Service (ABS) radio
AM or FM. The “Ogeolu Ugbo” or “Oge Omen a ani” Igbo programmes of ABS and
Minaj Radio respectively are some of such numerous entertainment programmes
that farmers does not want to miss, therefore he carries along the transistor
radio to the farm.
questions that might then basked or arise are:
Are the Radio messages more effective in rural
development for the rural dwellers?
Are the audience of radio larger than those of
television rural communities?
Are the radio and television stations directing
their programmes towards rural development?
What is the attitude of rural dwellers to people
towards radio and TV programming?
What is the level of the ruralities involvement
in radio and television programme?
OF THE STUDY
Communication in central to every
human existence and activities, prominent scholars in the field of
communication are not wrong when they defined the world as a global village
owing to the sophisticated technological innovations like the radio and
and television are the two outstanding and distinguished broadcasting media.
Talking about grassroot broadcasting, the radio enjoys the greatest effect.
radio (transistor) comes in various sizes and thus makes it relatively cheaper
to afford. Because of this, the village wine tappers who can afford the small size
radio, can also easily tie it to his waist enjoying his favourite programme
while carrying the days business on the palm tree.
language barrier usually associated with some other mass media, does not show
its ugly head. This is to say that the radio stations broadcast in the language
of the audience (listeners), making it possible for them to understand. The
rural man in this case, does not need to be literate in order to hear his own
language. Even with about 250 languages scattered across Nigeria, the radio has
solutions to them.
is the broadcasting media that can reach the widest number of listeners
(audience), on the maintain, in river-line areas, and even the most remote
areas. Added to this is the instantaneous nature of the radio. It has the power
to broadcast an event direct, ie at the same time the event is taking
the other hand, the television combines the audio and visual effect to make it
an interesting can effective medium of communication. Because of the mentioned
characteristics, it could be more effective, in appealing and persuading to the
public, however, the cost of the gadget now lives one in doubt especially the
ruralities as to how many of them can afford it.
development as a socio-economic phenomenon, is not as new as the current
emphasis on it portray. It is as old as the rural communities themselves. These
communities have no doubt, recorded some degrees of development in the past.
But to what extent? However, the rate of these developments have been so slow
that they have either been unnoticed or neglected for many decades now. If
rural development has in the past been that slow and so produced little
results, then the rural machinery or agent for development must be faulty.
in the area of rural development has shown that government in the past has been
looked upon as the sole agent of rural development or transformation. Suffice
it to say that community contributions, towards such development as a result of
this negative attitude, have been rare and minimal, if at all the exist.
answer to the cause of this situation is not far, it has been largely because
of ignorance or lack of sufficient awareness on the ruralities. This promoted
Akin Mabogunje, in his unpublished article “community organisation, and
collective action” to state that “a verile community organisation cannot be
sustained unless the members consciousness or awareness as to why the need the
organisation is raised”.
the same vein community participation in 8 rural project on programme is guided
by the same ideology. Jerry Gana quoting the United vations committee on Rural
Development (UNCRD 1985) pointed out that the capacity of a rural community to
respond to a specific local development plant and/or market force differs
dramatically, depending on the socio-economic and cultural foundation of the
is being pointed out here is that rural communities need to be properly
mobilized in order to create the awareness basic for appreciation and
participation in any development process. In other words, they need to be
educated, not in school, but to change the attitudes toward development in the
the implication is that for any rural development programme/project to be
functioned and meaningful, it has to be oriented towards the people (ruralities
in this case). The rural folks must have effective participation in the
decision-making process of that project programme.
this research revolves around “development”, one can vines the concept development
to mean different things to different people.
the first world, development suggest a process of improving structures, or
greating new ones. It is in line with this thinking that the United States
government stated that development of nations abroad. To them, (U.S), it means
using organisation to develop other nations. In developing countries like
Nigeria, the United States for Information Agency (U.S.I.A), is used in
second world (Maxist) sees development as a means of Ideological or
For the third world countries, whose
Relatively low per capital income, a high
rate of illiteracy, agriculturally based economy, short life expectancy, low
degree of social mobility a strong attachment to traditions, and histom, of
writers see development as most important in the sphere of international
communication. They pass this judgment because almost all activities of the
third world governments are attached to the development in a manner. They also
see the mass media as an instrument of development, no matter who owns the
media (private or government).
becomes important to note that development depends on the political framework
of a given nation. The degree of freedom enjoyed by the mass media is related
to the political structure of the particular nation. Because these writers see
the mass media as an instrument of development, they try to use the mass media
to achieve developmental goal.
bodies like UNESCO look at development as helping the third world countries to
develop. An organisation like UNESCO seems to be supports the third world
demand for the New World Information and communication order (NWICO) as its
perception of the concept of communication. In other words, UNESCO seems to
accept the view that communication as well as other things form part of
development in the third world especially when it comes to the rural areas:
Thus, such definitions as a process of
structural change in the technical, economic, political, and social
arrangements by which resources attributed in a society, towards the end of
providing the mass of the populations with the means of living a reasonably
secure, healthy and satisfying life,5
appear to be much more acceptable because they reflected the positive steps
currently bein taken by some writers and researchers in the development field
towards extricating development studies from the dutuches of conventionalism,
and apparent short sightedness.
ever way development is defined, there exist remarkable agreement on the view
that certain countries of the worl desperately need to acquire all or at least
most of the attributes of development in virtually every aspect of lives of
their people, especially the ruralities – hence rural development.
this note, the use of radio and television to effect or realize rural
development becomes most suitable and appropriate. In doing this, one
socio-economic group must be identified and treated. This group is the rural
dwellers, predominant illiterate, subsistent/peasant farmers.
OF THE STUDY
research project tried to find out whether the hypotheses were supported
through the available data, and give recommendation to government so as to help
the radio and television to raise the standard of the rural people of Nzam in
Anambra West L.G.A. to an urban status by providing rural development projects
other words, various governments have been neglecting rural community in this
country, and that is why most rural dwellers find life difficult, and
subsequently rush to urban cities where they think that they can “enjoy” life.
development nature of the socio-political structure in this country has made
the broadcast media highly sensitive. The broadcast media radio and television,
do perform very crucial rules in shaping the destiny of the Nigerian audience.
It is this vital role that has led to heavy reliance of the masses on the
apparent “credibility” of the broadcast media. Such confidence – carrying
remarks like “I heard it on the radio” and “I saw it on the television
(screen)” go long way to unveiling the extent to which the masses took upon the
broadcast media for guidance and development.
examined in this study was the role played by these broadcast me (radio and
television) in raising the rural community awareness of development project.
important of this present research is to show the relationship or pattern of
inter-connections between radio and television messages as agent of rural
development of Nzam community. For instance, agriculture is mostly practice in
rural areas of Nigeria like Nzam. This community lack electricity and therefore
seemingly denied the use of some mass media like television, expect the few
well-to-do, that find it difficult to be exposed to new farming techniques and
newly advertiser farm products, implements etc. on the television, except for
Are the Radio messages more effective in rural
(Nzam) community development for the rural dwellers?
Are the audience for radio larger than those of
television in rural community especially Nzam?
Do the inhabitants of Nzam have more radio set
them they have television sets?
Are the radio and television stations directing
their programmes towards rural development?
What is the attitude of rural dwellers (Nzam
people) towards the radio and television programmes?
What is the level of ruralities involvement in
radio and television programming?
What significant change(s) has been recorded by
the Nzam community as a result of their exposure to radio and television?
HYPOTHESIS AND NULL HYPOTHESIS
plays more significant role in rural development than the television.
Ho: Radio does not
play more significant role in rural development than the television.
and television programmes have been well directed toward rural development,
hence the people of Nzam have been mobilized through the two media (Radio and
Ho: Radio and
television have not been well directed toward rural development hence, the
people of Nzam have not been mobilized through the two media (Radio and
attitude of rural dwellers on self- oriented development via television
programming has been encouraging.
Ho: The attitude of
rural dwellers on self – oriented development via television programming has
not been encouraging.
with visual advantage, financial and other constraints have render television
ineffective for Nzam community.
Ho: With the visual
advantage, financial and other constraints have not render television
ineffective for Nzam community.
DEFINITIONS OF THE VARIABLES
Rural Development: It
is designed to give profit or unpuliftment, such as roads, schools, hospitals,
industries, market and the changes of attitudes.
assembled listeners or people to hear or listen to a speaker or witness an
inhabitants of rural communities who are mostly substation farmers and petty
traders, and mainly illiterates.
settlement located within a particular geographical or local territory, sharp
things together and identical in culture.
is a system for converting visual images (with sound) into electrical signals,
transmitting them and displaying them electronically on a screen. Or a process
of transmitting a view of event, plays etc, while these are taking place or
from films or tapes on which records have been made.
Rural Development: Projects
executed by the people of Nzam community such as rural feeder, raods, good
drinking water, health center, schools and the current electrification project.
inhabitant of Nzam community in Anambra West L.G.A, Anambra State.
people of Nzam who are expose to the radio and television messages and
This study assumes that about two-thirds of the
people of Nzam community are illiterate farmers.
That because majority of the people cannot read
and write, radio and television will be more effective in carrying the message
That people who are not exposed like the Nzam
community see development project as the sole responsibility of the government.
That if the results of the findings and the
recommendations are followed, rural communities will be seen competing for self
help project which contributes to rural development.
It is assumed that the youths in rural areas
migrate from rural to urban areas due to lack of infrastructural facilities
which keep life “enjoyable”, in this rural base.
That communities who are more exposed to the
mass media (specifically radio and television), are more development conscious
than those who are not.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Other mass media like the newspapers,
cinema, billboards, etc are deliberately excluded from this study since emphasized
is on television and radio.
Due to time constraints and limited
financial resources of the researcher, the study is in Nzam Community in
Anambra to enable him reach the sample population easier.
The questions administered were
limited to adults from 18 years old who understand what rural development
1. David O Edeani: Lecture Note on Rural Development,
2. Robert N. Aknobi: Integrated Rural Development in
Nigeria: The Anambra State Experience, In Mass Communication and
National Development, Ike E. Nwosu (ed), Frontier Publishers Ltd. Aba. 1990
3. Sigimund N. OIkenwa: Language As a Problem of
Broadcasting in Nigeria, In Mass Communication and National
Development Ike E. Nwosu (ed), Frontier Publishers Ltd. Aba, 1990
4. Ike E. Nwosu: The Rural Press as a Vital
Component of the Rural Information System. IN Mass Communication and
National Development, Ike E. Nwosu (ed) Frontier Publishers Ltd. Aba. 1990
5. Christopher O. A.: Newspaper and Radio Messages as
Agents of Social Mobilization A study of Adada Community, An Unpublished
Thesis of HND Mass Communication of I.M.T. Enugu, July 1985.