study was carried out to determine the newspaper readership pattern among
youths. This arose because it was
thought that the youth did not read newspapers and their use of other media was
Against the background of seemingly lack
of readership among the youth.
Questionnaires draw administered to ascertain the extent of reading
habit formed by this group.
The student of the Institute of
Management and Technology, Enugu were used as a focus. This
was a good sample as the they represent the youth found all over the
all experience similar socio-economic dilemma. They also face similar financial as well as
education problems experienced in the nation.
250 respondents were sampled
randomly and data analyzed and presented as percentages in frequency
distribution tables. The work traced the
reading habit found among the youth.
Researcher questions and hypothesis were used a guide for analysis and
The work reviewed other literature on
the topic and found out what their results were the conclusions down were based
both on other related work of literature and the results gathered from the questionnaire. The result showed that there were indeed
readership patterns among the youth
showed that students read newspaper and they also bought majority of
respondents bought or read. Result also
showed that students who bought were both more financially and academically
favoured than others that had lower reading habit. It was also
found out that sex was no barrier to who read and what was read. The female students read more than the male
student but they both read the same
content in their favourite newspapers.
Male youths read entertainment news in equal proportion with the female
youth. There was also equal reading
proportion in contents that have to do end at the study, recommendations were
made about activities that will help the youth develop readership and use
pattern for the newspaper and other media.
Background of Study
Objective of study
Significance of Study
Definition of Terms
Limitation of study
Sources of literature Review
Summary of Literature Review
FOUR- DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
population explosion of youth in Nigeria generally has
a cause of interest to economists as they study consumerism.
This branch of economics helps in
understanding consumer patters.
as old as man, being what it is, is very vital to the growth and development of
the psych0-social make-up of man. This
in turn equips man in fitting into healthy patterns, modeled for definite
objectives in national polity.
The background against which thus
study is being get up include; issues
like literacy level, interest in role of newspapers (Newspaper Consciousness)
for the development of man, factors that
influence choice/preference of man,
factors that influence choice/preference of news contents, sex dependent
variables among the study of age brackets etc.
it is in view of this that a remote understanding of the history and
principles of communication is vital to this study.
Since the existence of man varying forms
of communication have been invented or rediscovered. These include interpersonal, group public and
mass communication, each characterized by peculiar and channels of information
dissemination. The channel have further
been modified and divided inter radio, books etc.
The Newspaper being one modified channel of
information dissemination present the element of research for this study. Newspaper with its vital role to the
development of man has undergone changes in both content and form as to satisfy
man’s consciousness in search of information.
It is worthy to mention that information massages in newspaper are
structural to the readership pattern of the cross section of the society.
mechanics of communication which include picture, cartoons and literate
information become a remote but powerful factor
in creating on interesting pool from which a semi-pattern consequently emerges.
The principle of communication applied
in this work emphasizes only on the laws of efficient communication, some of
which are good grammer and syntax, appropriate use of literary devices that are
The above subject quickly recommends
themselves to the intelligence quittance of any readership. This
form the determinant in newspaper consciousness as it is well understood
that over and above poriny at payees of contents is fundamental to habit
forming. A highly literate as well as versed section of the society can
literally was the seemingly meaningless black print into a fabric of pleasure b
because of level of exposure to the element of literary appreciation.
the present work, the word readership-pattern in understood as the cross
section of the society that find time
out of interest and habits to indulge in the act of gathering information from
newspapers. This understanding is only
elementary as further into the work readership assumes a wider scope. The present study will seek to comparatively
the subject matter from the background of more complex definition. In view of
this, readership among the youth in general and students of Institute of
Management and Technology, Enugu in particular,
presents a particular, phenomenon that arouses interest.
More serious emphasis is laid on habit
orientated readership pattern- a pattern which is sustaining. This is not to say that this readership
pattern influence positively than this demand and supply curve. In fact both readership patterns confine with
a complex. And this is what actually
influences the demand and supply.
An easily recognizable or predictable
trend creates comparisons which are made to create a model hypothesis that will
help in decision making. Last but not
the least, comparative are here refere to relationship existing between under
studied elements from the background of stocktaking.
In comparative presented in this work,
comparison model have been created are got.
The following are the comparison models
employed in this work:
Sex oriented comparison model.
Age oriented comparison model
Finance oriented comparison model
Education oriented comparison model
Popular trend oriented comparison model
Political oriented comparison model
Religious conviction oriented comparison
A. SEX ORINTED COMPARISON MODEL
There is no point in doubting the fact the, gender goes a long way to
determine emotional responses to news content.
It is in view of this that study seeks to investigate the determining
factors that make a particular sex to be more or less responsive to male-female
ration among the students readership will be determine and critically studied.
ORIENTED COMPARISON MODEL:
an earlier assertion, the age brackets have been defined
among which this study is
to be undertaken namely.
16 to 26 years to discover the more responsive age group
among these brackets. A bird view of the
problem anticipated under this model is that hypothetically, the upper age
bracket appears to be more responsive for seasons that may be stated from the
questionnaire whereas lower group for other peculiar reasons hypothetically may
be less responsive to reading of newspapers.
C. FINANCE ORIENTED COMPARISON MODEL
It is no secret in economics that as people’s spending powers
grow with their standard at living; they can more easily afford to indulge in
less “necessaries”. If will not be out
place for a hungry man to spend his last Nzo for a lunch than by buy a
newspaper and go hungry. This becomes
more acute with students who always run budget-line.
D. EDUCATION ORIENTED COMPARISM MODLE.
things being equal, the more educated
one is, the easier it is
for him to appreciate as
well as extracting information from the newspaper
hence one’s level of education, in this case, the student
goes a long way to determine and habit in newspaper indulgence.
E. POPULAR TREND ORIENTED COMARISON MODEL
This is a less serious model as it is not sustaining. Nevertheless, when its cycle come up, it can
be quite impressive.
By trend, we mean a particular response due to a bias in
society. An example of trend could be
seen in old early country Newspaper pictures of the English gentry where it is
fashionable and popular to take snapshots with newspaper or folding.
E. POLITICS ORIENTED COMPARISON MODEL
Nationalism and patriotism can compel ardent readership from
patriots as they prefer their own local newspaper to better produced but
It is under such a model that we see customer ship done to
certain newspaper that advance the cause of independence.
G. RELIGIOUS CONVICTION ORIENTED MODEL
Under this model, we find people who for one religious
conviction or the other prefers some kind of news content in a newspaper. Which presence may persuade or dissuade them
from doing custom to newspaper publishers.
STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
is done to identify a problem. Hence the
identification these problems gives direction to research works in this case
the problems that led us into research are media
Media illiteracy as an impediment to
Newspaper consumption among Nigerian youths.
financial difficulty that are facing
Nigerian youth which in turn stand as an obstacle to Newspaper consumption.
the problem associated with the reading
habit among Nigeria youths.
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY.
aim embarking on this study was promoted by an observation made by earlier
researchers that the youths are generally not information conscious and it is
only the males among the youths, that try at all to obtain information,
specifically through the print media like newspapers.
This study wants to know if summaries
and conclusions of other works are also applicable to youths with lugh level at
educational exposure. The work wants to
find out if the new socio-economic status of the females, their new political
awareness orientations has affected their readership pattern.
It also aims at finding out if it only
the female youths that still read entertainment and family based materials in
newspaper or if the males have been affected by changes in the society and why
their sudden interest.
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The result of this study
will help editors editor of different
newspapers to know
the demography of their audience. With
the results obtained, they will know what material to retain or remove from
their news content.
study will help to find out the problems they youth grapple with, that have
made them lose interest in bunny and reading newspaper. It will also help editors know how to reach
out the young generation so as to create good reading habit in them. The project will help editors know how to
reach out the young generation so as to create good reading habit in them. The project will help editors and publishers
know the psychological disposition information dissemination.
Do educational and
financial positions affect newspaper readership among youth/
Do male youth read more
newspapers than female youths?
Do female youths and more
of entertainment news than male youths?
Does age affect newspaper
readership among Nigerian youth?
Hi Educational and
Financial positions affect newspaper readership among youths.
Ho: Education and
financial position do not effect newspaper readership among youths.
H2: Male youths are more newspaper readers
than male youths.
Ho: Female youths are more newspaper readers
than male youths.
H3: Female youths read entertainment
material than female youths.
Ho: Male youths read entrainment material
than female youths.
H4: Age as a factor affect newspaper
readership among the youths.
Ho: Age as a factor is not affecting
newspaper readership among the youths.
Does age affect newspaper readership among the youths?
CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL
1.7 DEFINITION CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION OF TERMS:
PATTERN: A way, in which something happens, moves,
develops, or is arranged.
NEWSPAPER: A part printed daily or weekly containing
READERSHIP: the number or type of readers of a
Newspaper, magazine, etc or of a particular writer
YOUTH: The time when a person is young, especial
the time before the child becomes an adult.
SEX: This means being male or female.
NEWSPAPER CONTENT: subject matter in Newspaper.
Newspaper: The printed ailies e.g punch, daily
champion, vanguard, sum etc
Pattern: The level consumption (e.g daily, weekly, occasional
Youth: Relating to the age that consumed the
newspaper, e.g 16-25, 25-30 year etc
Newspaper Content: These are contained in the volume of news,
adverts, Arts, fashion, foreign news
YOUTH: This word includes children and young
person of both sexes. It also involves
status classification of children and young adults.
SEX: This means differences that exist between male
and female. This term as well means the
sum total at characteristics, which distinguish male from female.
NEWSPAPPER CONTENT: This means that which is contained in the
volume of a newspaper. The amount of
substance of work a newspaper can hold for example fashion etc.
Male and Female student of the Institute
of Management and Technology, (IMT) Enugu, are literate. The students posses a similarity of
psychological as well as other dispositions with the rest of youths that live
in the country. Also they have equal access
to newspapers both financially and otherwise.
1.9 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
The study would have taken in more
youths in Nigeria but due to time limitation a well as high cost such
project. The study was limited to youths
(students) of Institute of Management and Technology Enugu.
Again, because of the population of the
students in the campus, which run into thousand, only 5% of his number was used
as sample size. A grater percentage
should are been used but for reasons given above.