TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
of the research
of research problem
of the study
of the study
of the study
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
of related work
of the review
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
of the study
and Validity of Instrument
of Data Analysis
Data presentation and analysis
4.1 Data presentation and Analysis
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
research examined the level of newspaper coverage on drug abuse (A study of
three selected newspaper). However, mass media especially newspaper have the
power to influence the feelings and attitude of people while it also help in
solving social problems which drug/substances abuse is one. Also this research
work evaluates the importance of newspaper coverage against the use of drugs or
drugs abuse among the citizens. Advertising messages and commercials in
newspaper can persuade and convince people to buy a wide range of products and
services by influence behaviour. A survey research method was adopted to select
the respondents and One hundred and twenty (52) copies of questionnaire were
administered to the selected respondents. The findings shows that Majority of
the citizens were aware of what drug abuse is all about through mass media and
friends. Almost all the respondents have one way or the other abuse drug or
substance and the abuse it usually frequent that is why the degree of drug abuse
in our society is very high. The selected newspaper and other mass media
educate and enlighten people on the dangers in drug abuse. It is recommended
that National and International Health Organisations should banned media
advertisement and publicity of substances and drug promotion like tobacco
cigarette, alcohol and other harmful drinks. While mass media should design specially
campaign to create awareness on the negative effects of drug abuse.
abuse has since been recognized as global problem that bother every country in
the world today. Different nations across the world including Nigerians abuse
the use of drugs and large percentage of these users are our youth in various
institution of learning. A drug has been define as any substances that when
aborted into a living organism may modify one or more of its physiological
functions (Croen, Woener, Harm and Reic hgott 1997). The term is generally used
in reference to a substance taken for therapeutic purpose and as abused
substances (Kwamanga, Hiombo and Amukoye, 2003).
United states of America (USA) study further
revealed that excessive illicit drug use rate among high school students and
young adults increase with age with a prevalence rate 19.60/0 between the age
of 18-20 years as indicated in Kwananga, etal (2003). A quotation from the
(substance Abuse and mental Health service Administration (SAMHSA) 1997 in the
According to the United Nation Officer on Drugs and
Crime (UNODC-Wito,2005 world Drug Report, 2005), some 200million people or 50/0
of the total world’s population age between 1.5 and 64 years have used drugs.
The report further says that no nation has been
immune to the devastating effects of the drug abuse. The officer of the
national agency for the campaign against drug abuse (NACACA, 2004B)
commissioned the first ever national baseline survey on the abuse of alcohol
and other drugs in Kenya in 2001. The study targeted Kenyan youth aged between
10-24 years. The report which was released in 2002 revealed that substances
abuse, both illicit and licit was forming a culture amongst Kenyan youth. Drug
abuse among the youth especially in secondary schools has endangered their
lives and this has caused a lot concern as the vice indeed has been identified
as major causes of problems experienced in secondary schools in Kenyan
(Gikonyo, 2005). The United Nations international drug control programme (world
drug report 2000) ranked Kenya among the four African nations notorious for
either consumption or manufacture of narcotics in the world.
In Nigerian studies have consistently shown that
there is considerable prevalence of drugs and substances use, with varying
prevalence rate found for both overall and specific drugs and substances abuse
(Abdulkarim, Mokuolu and Adeniyi, 2005).
According to Adelekan, Makanjuola, Nelom, fayeye and Amusan (2005) student may start using illegal drugs
because the drugs are available from their schools. School related factors can
also influence students to drug use (Ngesu etal, 2008) how the school
administration manages student affairs may led to drug abuse. Prevalence of
drug use and abuse are therefore major public health problem in the young
adults, especially among the secondary school students.
Previous studies show that more than a fifth (22.7%)
of primary school children takes alcohol, and also a figure that rises to more
than three-quates (68%) of students at the university or other tertiary
learning institution in Kenya take alcohol (siririgi and waihenaya 2001);ngesu
etal (2008) Otieno and Offulla (2009). Therefore, a large number of students
across all age groups have been exposed to alcohol, tobacco, miraa, glues
sniffing, marijuana and even hard drugs such as heroin and cocaine.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH
media campaigns focused on college, students drinking which have been campus
based, using a mix of posters, flyers, electronic mail messages and college
newspaper advertisements. More recently, a few regional, state and national
media campaigns have begun to address this issue as well.
this study is out to make a study on three selected newspaper on their coverage
against drug abuse.
THE VIOCE NEWSPAPER
The Benue printing and publishing corporation
publisher of the voice and Sunday voice newspaper emerged from the defined
Benue –plateau printing and publishing corporation and the government printing
The Benue state executive council had its conclusion
dabet march 3,1977 approved the establishment of the corporation, the
establishment was made by the amendment of the Benue plateau printing and
publishing corporation edict no 6 of 1972 to the Benue state edict no 1 of
The responsibility of corporation was to operate
news and feature service to encourage good administration, effective promotion
and commitment to the interest of Benue people to defend the state its
government and its indigenes scurrilous attack from any quarter.
To give publicity to and encourage the art and
industries of the state to serve as a forum for a meeting of the mind and
exchange of ideas between government and the people, finally to uphold the
secularity of the entire nation, the industry engages in the publication of
Sunday voice, weekend express, and voice sport apart from the daily edition of
the voice and commercial jobs being carry out, the page of now the voice was
increased from eight to sixteen and column from four-six while the Sunday voice
weekend express and voice sport all published weekly maintain the same pages
and column respectively.
At the time of the research the industry publishes
only the voice and Sunday voice edition,
other are off the newsstand plans were put in place as early as AUGUST 1,1985 to change the
status of the corporation to thus of a limited liability company, in 1992 the
REV Fr MOSES ADASU administration actualized this dream, however the company
never assumed that status and march 14, 1992the company was closed down because
the operation of the company was at a loss, staff were retrenched in the process while other were on compulsory
leave and yet other willingly resigned their appointment ironically, the
edition of the voice newspaper was of the newsstand in march 1995 and
reappeared in December, 1996 the daily edition
is now published on Wednesday and Friday –weekly while the Sunday voice
is published on Sunday the voice have super lithographic until, modern computer
section an equipped art studies web and modern printing machine with colour
facilities it has also edition and department , which serve as nerve center of
the industry or organization other include administration commercial, technical
and financial .
Staff strength of the organization is not static at
contain period ,they had on heir pay roll 120 staff at other 100.
THE PAVILION NEWSPAPER.
The pavilion newspaper is a privately owned
newspaper industry it made its debit in February 1997 having two directors and
nine staff with a staff of strength of
nine the aimed and objectives of the company is to promote developmental, marketing
and production .
The pavilion newspaper is published forth nighty in
16 pages and serve column respectively with about 1,00 copies forth nighty,
Benue, Taraba, and Nasarawa states are the intended target audience of the
young newspaper distribution of the newspaper is done through commercial
vehicles it has three freelances and no outsider on its edition board.
The company is currently carrying its printing jobs
which include commercial jobs on contract basis to private printer this is to
say that the company is yet to acquire its own printing machine it has.
THE TIGONS NEWSPAPER
The Tigons newspaper was conceived and established
in 1994 with its first edition on the newsstand on the 25th November 1996, the
aim of the newspaper are to publish textbook, poster handbill, post card, gathering and dissemination of news
particularly on people of middle best of Nigeria
The newspaper is funded through the solar of product
loans and personal saving they are 16 staff all in editorial with each
performing assigned function there are three major department including
administration, marketing and editorial
As a private newspaper industry, the autonomous
power is conferred and enjoyed by the management, they Tigons newspaper is
published forth nighty with its first
edition in 2 pages in magazine size and subsequent copies on broad sheet
size which is in four pages and two column a total of about 1,00 copies are
published forth nighty and are sold in Benue Taraba and Nasarawa state
including Abuja no outside on its editorial board and freelance come and go on
vehicles the company has no vehicle to circulate and distribute its publication
similarly production is connected out to private print in the town.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
continuous abuse of drugs lead the researcher to embark on this study, so as to
evaluate the extent at which the newspaper media is going about the incidence
of drug abuse in the country, their coverage concerning drug abuse and drug
addiction. The effects of drug abuse is detrimental not only to the individual
but to the society as a whole. Yet this problem is on the increase especially
among those in higher institution of learning. Which is a serious threat to our
national sanctity. How well can print
media as a vehicle for information dissemination be relied upon to perform its
role in the society, to join hand in the battle against drug abuse?
Drug abuse menace has strangle youthful population
reducing them to dummies zombies and drooling figure as well as wasting their
lives at the age which they are most needed in the society (Ngesu, Ndiku and
Masese dangers 2008) Despite the worldwide concern and education about the of
drug abuse most of the citizen have limited knowledge of how dangerous the
habit is (Ngesu etal 2008).
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The focal objective of this research work is to
examine and evaluate the coverage of the newspaper against drug abuse and
analysis its impact it has create.
1. To examine whether
newspapers educate and enlighten the general public on drug abuse?
2. To know if newspapers
awareness campaign on drug abuse have reduced the unlawful use of drug in our
3. To know the extent at
which the media – newspaper have gone to, in educating and their coverage on
4. To know if newspapers
contribute to drug abuse through advertisement and alcohol promo or not
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
study has important contribution to make in the education of drug abuse among
our youths and society in general.
government and other agencies of education will find this study useful in
directing their efforts towards the identified factors with the view of
controlling drug abuse among the people of our nation. It will help schools;
guidance counselors to identify cases of drug abuse, the associated problem and
treatment to be applied.
Government through the National Broadcasting
Commission (NBC) will benefit from the study to know the harmful effect of
media drama showing lots of drinking and alcoholic programme, advert and
marking on print media to the society.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
The researcher formed some research question which
the research work will answer and address in the course of this study.
1. Do the newspaper
educate and enlighten the general public on drug abuse?
2. Has mass media
awareness campaign on drug abuse reduced the unlawful use of drug in society?
3. Does newspaper promote
drug abuse through advertisement and alcohol promo?
4. Does newspaper educate
and enlighten the general public on the bad effects of drug abuse?
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
of time, geographical locations, fund and other necessary logistics, the study
is narrowed down to Benue State and the three selected newspaper as its case
study since it is very difficult if not impossible to study all the newspaper
production company in the state and across the state.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
research of this nature cannot be carried out without some constraints, this
constraints pose a lot of limitations to this work.
for the research work is relatively short.
emanated from other academic activities is also another constraints.
materials are also available because the work is relatively new.
constrain poses another challenges.
information is gathered through newspapers and internet.
Role: It is a function or
contribution of print media in curbing abuse of drug in society.
Newspaper: It a periodical
publication for dissemination of information against drug abuse.
Drug: It refers to
different forms of tables in liquid and capsules or substances like cocaine,
india-hemp e.t.c use for treatment of illness and related body problems.
Drug Abuse: Is means when people
use drugs or substances either liquid, tablet, injection or inhale it in amount
or with methods neither approved or nor supervise by medical professionals e.
Codeine- An alkaloid of opium.
It has mild analgesic properties, and is often combine with aspirin. Valuable
as cough sedative (linctus codcine) in dry and useless cough.
Alkaloid- Resembling an alkali.
A name often applied to a large group of organic basses found in plants and
which posses important physiological actions. Morphine, quinine, caffeine,
atropine and strychnine are well known examples of alkaloids.