EFFECT OF PACKAGING ON CONSUMER BUYING CHOICE OF SELECTED CONSUMER GOODS IN CALABAR METROPOLIS


EFFECT OF PACKAGING ON CONSUMER BUYING CHOICE OF SELECTED CONSUMER GOODS IN CALABAR METROPOLIS

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EFFECT OF PACKAGING ON CONSUMER BUYING CHOICE OF SELECTED CONSUMER GOODS IN CALABAR METROPOLIS

ABSTRACT

This research examined the effect of packaging on consumer buying choice of selected consumer goods in Calabar metropolis. The study was conducted in a bid to provide empirical evidence on the effect of packaging on consumer buying choice in order to assist dealers of consumer goods better understand consumer buying behavior and use that knowledge to influence customer patronage. It had the broad objective of investigating the effect of packaging on consumer buying choice of selected consumer goods in Calabar metropolis, and the following specific objectives: to examine the effect of packaging colour on consumer buying behavior towards Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis; to examine the influence of design of wrapper on consumer buying behavior of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis; to examine the effect of quality of packaging material on consumer buying behavior of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis; and to examine the influence of packaging information on consumer buying behavior of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis. The research design adopted for this study was the cross-sectional survey research design. The research instrument used for this study was the structured Questionnaire. Analytical techniques comprising simple tables, percentages and the Simple Regression in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0) were used to analyze and treat the data collected. The results obtained from the study showed that: packaging colour had a significant effect on consumer buying behavior of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis; design of wrapper had a significant influence on consumer buying behavior of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis; quality of packaging material had a significant effect on consumer buying behavior of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis; and packaging information had a significant influence on consumer buying behavior of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis. Taking the findings of this study into consideration, the following recommendations were made: Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles should use culturally and socially acceptable colours to design the package of their products in order to attract customer patronage; the companies should use creative aesthetics and graphical designs to decorate the package of their products in order to visibly portray their features to customers and attract customers’ attention and patronage; the companies should use high quality materials which are capable of preserving and protecting the products and ensuring the safety of consumers’ health; and the companies should ensure that adequate information about their products; its usage, composition and precautions, is conspicuously published in or on the package of their products in order to enable consumers make informed purchase options. (Word count: 458)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

TITLE PAGE                                                                                                   i         

DEDICATION                                                                                                             ii          

DECLARATION                                                                                             iii         

APPROVAL PAGE                                                                                        iv        

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                             v        

ABSTRACT                                                                                                    vi        

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                vii        

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                           x

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1          Background of the study        

1.2          Statement of the problem

1.3          Objectives of the study

1.4          Research questions

1.5          Research hypotheses

1.6          Significance of the study

1.7          Scope of the study

1.8          Limitations of the study

1.9          Operational definition of terms

References

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1       Theoretical framework

2.2       Concept of packaging

2.2.1    Role of packaging in marketing

2.2.2    Concept of consumer buying behavior

2.2.3    The consumer buying decision process

2.2.4   Factors affecting consumer behavior

2.2.5   Packaging colour and consumer buying behavior

2.2.6   Design of wrapper and consumer buying behavior

2.2.7   Quality of packaging material and consumer buying behavior

2.2.8   Packaging information and consumer buying behavior

2.2.9   Conceptual framework of effect of packaging on consumer buying behavior

2.3      Summary of review of related literature

References

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research design

3.2 The study area

3.3 Population of the study

3.4 Sample size determination

3.5 Sampling techniques

3.6 Sources and methods of data collection

3.7 Instrumentation

3.8 Validity of research instrument

3.9 Reliability of research instrument

3.10 Data analysis techniques

       References

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND

 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1 Data presentation and interpretation

4.2 Data analysis

4.3 Test of hypotheses

4.4 Discussion of findings

       References

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION

                 AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary of findings

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendations

      Bibliography

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1          Background of the study

The Nigerian business environment remains one of the dynamic and competitive markets on the African continent today. With a population of more than 180 million, the growth of modern business practices, the surging winds of globalization and the proliferation of new technologies, the Nigerian marketing environment is projected to become more competitive than ever. Start-ups and existing businesses are seen tussling ideologically and practically in order to outperform and outcompete one another in their various enterprises (Okwocha, 2011). To accomplish this, a number of marketing strategies have been resorted to, and among these is packaging. Packaging, in modern terms, can be defined as the designing and producing containers and wrappers for a product (Keller, 2009). Packaging is so important that most of the marketers believe it is the fifth P of marketing mix with other four Ps of product, price, promotion and place and it is considered to be an important element in product strategy (Kotler, 2008). In today’s market, it consists of three functions which include logistics, commercial and environmental functions (Rundh, 2013). Packaging is also an important factor of brand recognition as well as an important factor in creating positive brand associations (Keller, 2009). In a competitive market, packaging as a marketing tool could be an effective way to achieve marketing objectives and at the same time, it satisfies the desires of consumers through its aesthetics elements which include package size, shape, text, colour, material and graphics and its functional elements as well (Rundh, 2013). Packaging as an element of product strategy has become so important that when there seems to be a minute difference in the brands, innovative packaging may provide a competitive advantage (Keller, 2009).  Packaging has developed itself from time to time and the factors that affected it include changing needs and demographics, changing needs of storing and transporting a product and technological advancement (Calver, 2007). Due to the crowded marketplace of today’s world, packaging has evolved as an affective communicator to get consumers attention and convince them at the point-of-purchase when compared with other traditional marketing mediums such as mass media advertising (Robert, 1998). Packaging conveys the meaning of a brand in non-durables and becomes a point of difference when other products of similar category just portray the functional benefits, thus eventually establishing a relationship between a consumer and a brand (Robert L. Underwood, 1998). Packaging is an important factor of brand recognition and creating positive brand associations (Keller, 2009). Smith (2004) identified six packaging elements which include size, graphics, color, text, material and smell. According to Keller (2009), aesthetic elements or components of packaging include size, color, text, graphics, material and shape.

Packaging has now many functions from protecting the product, to transporting the product to the end consumer safely preserving quality and to persuade the consumers to buy the product by getting consumer attention while at the same time creating a positive impact at retail stores in a highly competitive environment (Rundh, 2005). Research has shown that consumers positively evaluate product’s packaging if it consistently and coherently conveys the meaning of that product through its packaging elements (Hannele, 2010; and Lynn, 2012). This suggests that packaging has some form of relationship with the behavior of consumers. Packaging does more than protecting a product from hazards, and aiding logistics processes;  packaging promotes a product and communicates with consumers with a view to influencing their behavior towards products (Arun & Agariya 2012). In support of the above assertion, packaging was found to have a significant effect on consumer buying behavior (Ahmed, Parmar & Amin, 2014; Adam & Ali, 2014; Ghosh, 2016; Ehsan & Samreenlodhi, 2015; Mazhar, Daud & Mubin, 2015; and Zekiri & Hasani, 2015). While packaging Is argued not to have a significant effect on consumer buying behavior (Parisa, 2013; Wang, 2013; Munyarazdi, 2013; and Rita, 2009).

Therefore, it is in this context that this study will investigate the effect of packaging on consumer buying choice of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis.

1.2       Statement of the problem

The subject "effect of packaging on consumer buying behavior" remains one of the most investigated subjects of contemporary research in the field of marketing. Scholars like Ahmed, Parmar and Amin (2014); Adam and Ali (2014); Ghosh (2016); Ehsan and Samreenlodhi (2015); Mazhar, Daud and Mubin (2015); and Zekiri and Hasani (2015) have lent ample research attention to the subject over the years. This emphasis on determining the relationship between packaging and consumer buying behavior is partly caused by the nature of today's consumers, who are more sophisticated, selective and more demanding than ever, coupled with the surge in competition in the packaged goods industry in Nigeria. As a result of these, being able to induce consumers to purchase and stay loyal remains a herculean task, which is why manufacturers of consumer goods like Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles are resorting to innovative and creative packaging as a stimulant of consumer buying choice. This study was therefore conducted in order to provide empirical evidence on the relationship between packaging and consumer buying behavior in order to enable manufacturers of consumer goods to mitigate challenges posed by consumer buying choices towards their products, and to add to existing literature on the subject.

1.3       Objectives of the study

This study has the broad objective of investigating the effect of packaging on consumer buying choice of selected consumer goods in Calabar metropolis; and the following specific objectives:

(1) To examine the effect of packaging colour on consumer buying behavior towards Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis

(2) To examine the influence of design of wrapper on consumer buying behavior of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis

(3) To examine the effect of quality of packaging material on consumer buying behavior of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis

(4) To examine the ifluence of packaging information on consumer buying behavior of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis

1.4       Research questions

The following research questions guided this study:

(1) To what extent does packaging colour affect consumer buying behavior of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis?

(2) To what extent does design of wrapper influence consumer buying behavior of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis?

(3) How does quality of packaging material affect consumer buying behavior of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis?

(4) How does packaging information influence consumer buying behavior of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis?

1.5      Research hypotheses

The basic assumptions of this study are summed up in the following null hypotheses:

(1) Ho: Packaging colour has no significant effect on consumer buying behavior of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis

(2) Ho: Design of wrapper has no significant influence on consumer buying behavior of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis

(3) Ho: Quality of packaging material has no significant effect on consumer buying behavior of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis

(4) Ho: Packaging information has no significant influence on consumer buying behavior of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis

1.6      Significance of the study

Upon the successful completion of this research, it will contribute to the academia by serving as a source of knowledge or reference material for students and a guide to future researchers on the conduct of future research in related fields. To manufacturers of consumer goods like Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles, this study will reveal the utmost imperative of designing and mobilizing creative and innovative packages for their products for the purpose of influencing consumer choice in addition to protecting, preserving and promoting their products.

1.7       Scope of the study

The research "effect of packaging on consumer buying choice of selected consumer goods" was conducted in Calabar metropolis using Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles as case study. The study specifically centered on how packaging colour,  design of wrapper, quality of packaging material and packaging information affect consumer buying behavior towards Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis.

1.8       Limitations of the study

As is true with all research works, this research was not immune from limitations. Some of the constraints faced over the course of conducting this research were:

  1. Inadequate financial resources which limited the scope of the study to Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis.

2.    Inadequate time frame for the project and other academic activities.

3.    Difficulty in getting customers of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar to participate in the questionnaire survey.

4      Difficulty posed in retrieving all distributed questionnaire copies.

 

1.9      Operational definition of terms

Packaging: The act of designing and using wrappers to enclose a product

Consumer buying choice: The decision made by consumers to either buy or not buy a product

Consumer goods: Products bought for ultimate consumption or to meet personal and/or household needs

Packaging colour: The color combination on the package of a product

Design of wrapper: The graphic and artistic design on the package of a product

Quality of packaging material: The texture of material used to enclose a product

Packaging information: The information displayed on the package of a product

 

References

 

Adam, M. A. & Ali, K. (2014). Impact of packaging elements of packaged milk on consumer buying behaviour. Asian Journal of Scientific Research,  4 (1):21-46

Ahmed, R. R., Parmar, V. & Amin, M. A. (2014). Impact of product packaging on consumer’s buying behavior. European Journal of Scientific Research, 20 (2): 145-157

Arun, K. & Agariya, A. J. (2012). The Role of Packaging in Brand Communication. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research , 3 (2), 1-13.

Calver, G. (2007). What is packaging design? (1st ed.). (L. Taylor, Ed.) Switzerland: Roto Vision.

Ehsan, M. & Samreenlodhi, O. (2015). Brand packaging and consumer buying behavior: a case of FMCG products. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 5 (11):590-602

Ghosh, B. (2016). Impact of packaging on consumers’ buying behaviour: a case study of Mother Dairy, Kolkata. Journal of Management, 12 (1):63-69

Hannele, H. T. (2010). Exploring consumers' product-specific color meanings. Qualitative Market Research. An International Journal, 13 (3): 287-308.

Keller, K. L. (2009). Choosing brand elements to build brand equity in strategic brand management (3rd ed.). Delhi: Dorling Kindersley.

Kotler, P. (2008). Marketing management (13th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Kotler, P. (2009). Products, services, and brands: building customer value in principles of marketing (13th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Lynn, J. S. (2012). A mixed-methods approach for designing market driven-packaging. Qualitative Market Research. An International Journal, 15 (3): 268-289.

Mazhar, M., Daud, S. & Mubin, M. (2015). Impact of product packaging on consumers buying behavior: evidence from Karachi. An International Peer-reviewed journal,16 (2): 35-42

Munyarazdi, J. M. (2013). The impact of aesthetics package design elements on consumer purchase decisions: a case of locally produced dairy products in Southern Zimbabwe. Journal of Business and Management, 8 (5): 64-71.

Okwocha, V. O. (2011). Today’s Nigerian economy: contemporary views and perspectives. Retrieved from: http://www.vanguard.ng/okwocha_2011_todays-nigerian-economy-contemporary-views-and -perspectives/file34790?06.html

Parisa, O. M. (2013). The study of relationship between packaging elements and purchase behavior: consumers of food, cosmetics and health products. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 5 (3): 281-295.

Rita, A. D. (2009). Impact of package elements on consumer's purchase decision. Economics and Management, 2 (5): 441-447.

 Robert, J. L. (1998). Is your packaging an effective communicator? A normative framework for increasing the communicative competence of packaging. Journal of Marketing Communications , 8 (3):207-220.

 Rundh, B. (2005). The multi-faceted dimension of packaging marketing logistic or marketing tool? British Food Journal, 107 (9): 670-684.

Rundh, B. (2009). Packaging design: creating competitive advantage with product packaging. British Food Journal, 111 (9): 988-1002.

 Rundh, B. (2013). Linking packaging to marketing: how packaging is influencing the marketing strategy. British Food Journal, 115 (11): 1547-1563.

Smith, J. T. (2004). Packaging in marketing communications (2nd ed.). London: Kogan Page Limited.

Wang, E. S. (2013). The influence of visual packaging design on perceived food quality, value and brand preference. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management , 41 (10): 805-816.

Zekiri, J. & Hasani, V. (2015). The role and impact of packaging on consumer buying behavior. Journal of Business and Administration, 4 (5): 232-256

EFFECT OF PACKAGING ON CONSUMER BUYING CHOICE OF SELECTED CONSUMER GOODS IN CALABAR METROPOLIS

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This research examined the effect of packaging on consumer buying choice of selected consumer goods in Calabar metropolis. The study was conducted in a bid to provide empirical evidence on the effect of packaging on consumer buying choice in order to assist dealers of consumer goods better understand consumer buying behavior and use that knowledge to influence customer patronage. It had the broad objective of investigating the effect of packaging on consumer buying choice of selected consumer goods in Calabar metropolis, and the following specific objectives: to examine the effect of packaging colour on consumer buying behavior towards Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis; to examine the influence of design of wrapper on consumer buying behavior of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis; to examine the effect of quality of packaging material on consumer buying behavior of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis; and to examine the influence of packaging information on consumer buying behavior of Indomie Instant Noodles and Tummy Tummy Noodles in Calabar metropolis. The research design adopted for this study was the cross-sectional survey research design. .. marketing project topics

EFFECT OF PACKAGING ON CONSUMER BUYING CHOICE OF SELECTED CONSUMER GOODS IN CALABAR METROPOLIS

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  • TYPE : PROJECT MATERIAL
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