1.1 Background to the Study
Business environment throws dynamic
challenges in the form of ever-growing competition. Product and brand
extensions pose a challenge in terms of getting customer attention.
Marketing metrics become a serious concern for marketers, who apply a
variety of tools to overcome the competition. Advertisement is a vital
tool used by marketers to sell their products or services. Advertisement
reaches consumers through their TV sets, computers, radios, newspapers,
magazines, mailboxes and more.
The usage of
advertisement as a measure to build long-term competitive edge gains
momentum in twentieth and twenty-first century only. Economists of the
nineteenth century and before hardly paid any attention to
advertisement. It so happens since the attention of the economists of
nineteenth century was devoted largely towards the theory of perfect
competition, which hardly sees any role for advertisement (Bagwell, Ramey and Spulber, 2007). Advertisement is regarded as being persuasive, informative and complementary with the advertised product (Bagwell, Ramey and Spulber, 2007).
American Marketing Association defines advertisement as any paid form,
non-personal presentation of ideas, products and services by an
identified sponsor. Similarly, Advertisement is any paid form of
non-personal communication about an organization, product, service, or
idea by an identified sponsor (Alexander, 1965). Burnett (2008) also
views advertisement as a tool of non-personal communication aimed at
disbursing marketing related information to a target audience, usually
paid for by the advertiser and delivered through mass media in order to
achieve the specific objectives of the sponsor Historically, the
research work studying advertisement has focused largely on sales and
profit response of marketing actions. The foremost function of
advertisement has been seen in terms of increasing sales revenue.
Thinkers find that advertisement helps in generating sales both in
short-run and long-run (Dekimpe and Hanssens, 1995; Lee et al, 1996; Leong et al, 1996; Leach and Reekie, 1996).
Advertising attracts the attention of
the consuming public. Most often, firms in various industries try to
stimulate sales through the manipulations of consumers psychological,
emotional and economic rate of mind through the means of advertising
this often happens when there is an intense competition in the business
line, manufacturers or producers find a pressing need for promotional or
Advertising in other words called
communication mix is used in promoting a product both new and old that
is communicating the consumers in the use and purpose of the new
product, including the need for it. Since the purpose of advertising is
to change customers attitude or patterns of behavior toward a product
or service in a direction favourable to the advertise as well as
increasing the sales volume. It is pertinent therefore, for firms to
embark on descriptive informative advertisement attract attention to the
existence of a new product and motivating the public to buy a trial
supply or perhaps accept a free sample may be rendering a desirable
service advertising as an exercise in information persuasion and
communication is related because to inform is to persuade and a person
who is persuaded is also informed, and persuasion and information become
effective through some form of communication, therefore advertising,
promotion is the design and management of a marketing subsystem for the
purpose of informing and persuading present and potential customers.
Moreover, when a new product is introduced in the market, an initial
risk to take buyers aware of it’s value and and existence. The role of
information in promotion, however, is too restricted to new product
because buyers differ in stage of their relationship with a product.
Even products that have been in the market for years still need
It’s also needed during periods of
shortages, promotion in this period could take the form of structural
information, emphasizing on product conservation or an instructional
programme to help consumers with product. It can also be very useful to
stimulate sales when the company is having very low sales. Obviously,
the basic objective underlying all advertising on the part of the
production in an increase of sales volume brought about the
advertisement. This aim may be further, subdivided in terms of dimension
and by devising strategies aimed at achieving either short or long term
gains however, both aims will be achieved, but the immediate objective
until condition the strategy and the promotional tools employed.
By and large use can infer that the
motive of advertising is not to write great literature but to present
the prettiest picture or to entertain the audience through some or all
of these elements are often present in advertising. Advertising is first
and for most a sales tool and we must never lose sight of that fact.
Again advertising is also a major
stimulant to vigorous economic growth and stability. Advertising
promotes a more efficient use of the natural resources, it is a key
linking the marketing process, the aim of which to produce what the
market needs and can absorb.
Having dealt extensively with the
concept of advertising, we can now look into the impact of advertising.
So once it has been determined that a key problem or opportunity for
the brand / product involves it’s communication with consumers, thus, an
integral part of the advertising planning and decision making process
is an assessment of the role that advertising is meant to play.
As in the part of communication mix,
once this perspective has been gained the brand manager must design a
marketing and communication plan with the different elements complement
and each other increasing the sales of the brand. Advertising as a
communication tool and in most cases, is advantageous to set objectives
and measures the result in terms of intervening variables like brand
awareness, brand image, or attitude. However, these communication tasks
are ultimately expected to create a behavioural response to the market
Also, advertising as a sales tool has
acquire a wide range of acceptance as a functional form of promoting
sales. Firms, therefore, should adopt it so as to enable properly set
an objective selection of tools, effectives implementation and
channeling of resources as well as profit maximization through increased
According to Adirika, Ebue and Nnokim
(2006) advertising is a powerful marketing communication tool used by
companies to fulfill the promotional tool. It is an impersonal form of
communication or presentation of goods, ideas, or services conducted
through paid media under open or identified sponsorship. Everything
about advertising is a sponsor sending a message, called advertisement,
through one mass media (radio, television, newspaper, magazines) to
reach large numbers of potential use of buyers of product. By itself,
advertising is a vital marketing tool that helps to sell goods,
services, images and ideas through information and persuasion. Many
companies consider advertising a superior promotional tool to personal
selling, sales promotion or publicity. This is because advertising
provides multiple presentation to masses of people with one message,
compared with personal selling that involves individual contact with
each prospect. Sales promotion frequently requires individual contact
also, publicity may provide multiple simultaneous presentation like
advertising, but the firm has limited control on the message content and
placement. While advertising is given such a credit, it is crucial to
our understanding, therefore, that we appreciate from the start the real
place of advertising in marketing, the best advertisement cannot sell a
product that they feel are of poor quality, too expensive or below
expectations. As a matter of fact, the best way to kill a bud product is
to advertise if. Advertising on it’s own rarely sell promotion mix
variables, and the other marketing concerns including product
development and research. Most advertisement are designed to make both
personal selling and sales promotion easier by informing, persuading
reminding, reassembling, reinforcing and establishing positive attitude
and images towards product and a company. Simply bet advertising
enhances the potential customers responses to the company’s activities.
as a tool of marketing, advertising therefore can defined as “Any paid
form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and
services by an identified sponsor” (American marketing association).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
According to Kotler and Armstrong (2005)
advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion
of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor.
Most business establishments generally
cherish competition especially when it is healthy and worthwhile.
Competition also thrives well in a mixed economy as a Nigeria where the
tents of capitalism provides for free enterprise activities. In a pure
Nigerian competitive market situation like the one that exists here in
the market with Port Harcourt as a case study, a marketing manager often
faced with the problem of how to determine the demand for his product
in a particular market segment and also the issue of finding out and
separating those that are inconsistent in the demand pattern of his
product Agu, C. A. Nnamani, C. J. Ejike (1998).
Looking at the growth trend of the
detergent, market, facts portray that competition will continually grow.
Therefore, makers of OMO blue detergent need to have an edge over it’s
competitors. This can be achieved through research by designing
suitable balanced strategies to out with competitors and also to
determine the strength of the promotional mix for purpose of stimulating
demand of it’s own product brand.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to examine
the Impact of advertising and the marketing performance of detergent of
elephant extra of PZ industry in Port Harcourt. The specific study
- Examine the association between Social Media in detergent manufacturing companies in Port Harcourt.
- Examine the relationship between Email in detergent manufacturing companies in Port Harcourt.
- Examine the relationship between online Communication in detergent manufacturing companies in Port Harcourt.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions are posed to guide this study.
1. To what extent does Social Media affect detergent manufacturing companies in Port Harcourt?
2. To what extent does Email affects detergent manufacturing companies in Port Harcourt?
3. To what extent does online Communication in detergent manufacturing companies in Port Harcourt?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The under listed hypothesis have been formulated for the study.
Ha1: There is a significant relationship between Social Media and Market share
Ha2: There is a significant relationship between Social Media and Sales Volume.
Ha3: There is a significant relationship between Email and Market Share
Ha4: There is a significant relationship between Email and Sales Volume
Ha5: There is a significant relationship between Online Communication and Market Share
Ha6: There is a significant relationship between Online Communication and Sales Volume.
1.6 Conceptual Framework
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF ADVERTISING AND MARKETING PERFORMANCE
SOURCE:(Researcher’s Desk 2015).
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study will also be valuable to
marketing students who may as advertising executives so as to know how
to channel the company’s strategies for effectives and efficient
advertising delivery and customers retention. It will be beneficial to
customers who will learn from what to expect from a detergent product.
It will enable the company know that effectives advertising expose the
brands name and the brands message to the identified target audience at
the right time and through the right media. The data collected will be
used to improve advertising process. Above all, this study will be of a
great advantage of both the researcher and reader as the study provide
an indepth knowledge and understanding in areas which could stir up
1.8 Scope of the Study
This study intends to cover large
production orientation on manufacturing industries in Rivers State,
especially on the promotion of detergent product with regards to PZ
industry, the scope of this study tends to concentrate of elephant extra
detergent and also to analyze the effect of promotion on the buying
behavior of consumer.
1.9 Limitation of the Study
The major problem of administrating the
questionnaire is lack of proper understanding on the part of the
respondents on the use and need of such questions. Problems were also
encountered in the areas of non-availability of secondary data from PZ
industry and the explanation for non availability of such data was that
it would violate the company business policy. It look the researcher
quite a reasonable time before PZ could provide the needed secondary
data that were used.
1.10 Definition Of Terms
The following terminologies used in this
study are hereby defined for easy understanding and general
comprehension of the study or of the whole work.
IMPACT: This is an affect on the mind of the consumer, it’s also mean the satisfaction that consumer achieved.
ADVERTISING: This refers to a
non-personal form of mass communication, presentation and promotion of
goods, ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor through the
means of using different media such as television, radio, newspaper,
MARKETING: According to Kotler (2004)
marketing is the social and managerial process by which individuals and
groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering and
freely exchanging product and service of value with others.
STRATEGY: A strategy is a pattern of
actions and resources allocation designed to achieve the goals and
purposely coordinate organizational moves in it’s markers.
CONSUMER: Consumer is a person who buy product, or use product or goods and all these mention was satisfied by the user.
DETERGENT: This refers to a sustain that removes dirt and stain from cloths.
BRAND LOYALTY: Brand loyalty deals with the preference of customers in buying a particular brand over and over.