This project work is conducted as part
of the requirement for the award of Master of Business Administration
Certificate in Marketing.
The aim of research is to find out the
effective marketing strategies for improved performance of manufacturing
companies in Aba Metropolis.
The entire work is divided into five
chapters, chapter one deals with the definition of problems of study,
the objectives and significance of the study were also treated in this
Chapter two deals with the review of
related literature on marketing strategies. Here the researcher tried to
bring together what different authors have to say on Application of
Marketing strategies, Product strategies, Price strategies, Distribution
strategies and Promotional strategies.
Chapter three contains a: detailed
expansion of how and where the needed information for the study was
obtained from questionnaires presented and analyzed statistically.
Chapter four contains the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data.
This is where the views and opinions and responses from the employees of Lever Brothers Plc were analyzed.
Finally chapter five contains the summary of the study
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Importance of Marketing Strategies.
Problems of Marketing Strategies
Various Marketing Strategies Available to Lever
Brothers Nigeria Plc.
Sources of Data Collection
Population of Study.
Determination of Sample Size
Sample Size for Distributors
Sample Size for Personnel Staff.
Instrument for Data Collection.
Method of Data Treatment and Analysis.
Questionnaire Allocation and Administration
4.0 Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary of Findings
In Nigeria where the importance of
marketing is yet to be fully appreciated, people talk of marketing their
products as if they are referring to a particular problem. A successful
marketing strategy must tell an organization where they would want to
be on a long-term basis, that is why it is often said that marketing
strategy is a continuous process. It must rest on a carefully but well
planned action, Baker (1995: 17)
The strategy aspect of the plan should
be based on what is known of the competitor’s strength and weakness, the
physical characteristics of the battle ground, the friendly or hostile
sentiment of those who occupied the territory, and of course, the nature
of resources available to the organization, Stanton (1982: 35).
In the business organization, there is
safely no activity where the marketer must not therefore make the right
decision about the four components of the marketing mix - price,
product, place/distribution and promotion through the employment of
marketing strategy. These key components must be co-ordinated and moved
into a unified effective strategy if the product must perform well in
the market, Kotler (1997: 315)
The analog to business strategies is
direct and useful in business and in marketing, the terrain is the
market place in particular and economic, political, social and
technological environment in general. The resources are personnel with
wide-ranging skills and expertise as well as factory laboratories,
transportation system, financial resource and the corporate reputation,
Henry (1984: 72)
More so, depending on the nature of
business, strategies may have other dimensions as well. At the heart of
any business strategy is marketing strategy. Businesses exist to deliver
products to the markets to an extent that they serve this purpose
efficiently through profit maximization.
All these are marketing efforts. The
objectives of an organization have to be considered, particularly on
customers’ satisfaction and increasing their sales volume at profits
Conclusively, Lever Brother
Nigeria Plc being one of the leading manufacturing outfits in
Nigeria must reflect and consider marketing strategies as a means of
success in the markets and above all must anticipate the action and
reactions of their competitors, Nwosu (1996: 112).
1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND INFORMATION OF LEVER BROTHERS PLC:
Lever Brothers Nigeria Plc is among the
leading multinational companies that exist in Nigeria. And there is no
way the history of Lever Brothers Plc can be treated without relating to
the existence and impact of Unilever Brothers (Nig.) Plc, its parent
and multinational company in London. Unilever’s history is also linked
with the founder, William Hesketa Lever.
William H. Lever started at a tender age
of 19 years by 1885. He started by buying the “purest” soap from local
soap market. In other words, he was the first to start selling the
faslets, wrapping it in bar of specific advertising through local
newspaper. “No soap does this buyer business than advertising” was his
In Nigeria, William H. Lever bought a
Liverpool from traders in Nigeria mainly in timber in 1910. Palm Kernel
crushing mills were erected in 1910 at Oposo and Apapa (Lagos). In 1920,
Mr. Lever bought over the Niger company for $8.6 million. It is this
company that merged with African and Eastern Trading Company to form
what, is presently known as the United African Company (UAC) in 1929.
Unliever extended its business
activities into Nigeria when it was incorporated as West African Soap
Company (WASC), until 124 at Apapa where laundry soap of key, sunlight
and magret brands were first manufactured in -1952. Lux tablet was
introduced, magarine factory, which was registered under the name Van
Bergh (Nig) Ltd, was opened also at Apapa.
It was named Lever Brothers Nigeria Plc
where both WASC and Van Ban Bergh (Nig) Limited merged in 1955. Under
the same management in 1957, Aba branch was opened with a soap factory
for the production of laundry soap to start.
Presently, Lever Brothers Nigeria Plc has grown in the manufacturing of large varieties of products such as:
1. Cream and lotion products
2. Toilet soaps/laundry soaps
3. Oral care products
4. Baby care products
5. Hair care products
9. Fabric washing/home cleaning
10. Diversely lever/industrial floor care products
11. Cubes etc.
Lever Brothers Nigeria PLc has also bought up the share of Lipton (Nig.) Ltd., makers of Lipton tea bag and Boncape coffee.
The performance of this section is that
as early as 1885 Lever Brothers (Nig.) Plc found a need for marketing
strategy and has taken innovative steps in penetrating the market for
unpublished manual history of Lever Brothers and its present
organization. Department of Management Training and Development, LBN,
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM:
Effective marketing strategies have
contributed immensely towards the achievement of. post purchase
satisfaction, on the side of customers who -make use, of a given product
in the market. Well established and implemented marketing strategies
have played great roles in the success of business in Nigeria.
Every company which intends to improve
on its marketing has to create good marketing strategies for its
efficient and effective operations. These strategies if effectively used
should increase the sales and profitability of such company/ and will
also enable the company to achieve its stated goals/objectives,
Various products - line produced by
Lever Brothers Plc such as cream and lotion products, Omo detergent,
baby care products, oral care products, hair reiaxer, close-up tooth
paste and many others have been contributing a lot towards the success
of the firm in recent years, due to efficient and effective marketing
strategies designed by them, and the maintenance of market share due to
good penetration of the products in the market.
However, for some times, Lever Brothers
Plc has been experiencing poor sales of its products in the market place
as a result of the followings;
- Unfavourable external business environment.
- Inability Of the products to face other competing ones in the market place.
- Customers’ reaction against repeat - purchase
As a result of these afore-mentioned
problems the researcher intends to find solutions to
the problems and offer recommendations.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:
Most texts, studies, and write-ups have
in the past dwelled solely on the marketing concept and 4ps of marketing
with little or no attention given to marketing strategies. As a result
of this disregard, this study focuses attention on the following:
- To find out the major causes of poor sales of Lever Brothers products in the market place.
- To identify, marketing strategies to be used in order to increase the sales and profitability of the product.
- To determine whether the qualities of different products sold by LBN has helped to increase its sales.
- To determine whether the pricing strategies used by Lever Brothers
Plc have helped to increase the sales of its products in the market
- To ascertain whether the chain of distribution strategy adopted by LBN has helped to increase the sales of its product.
- To find out if the promotional strategies used by LBN have
contributed to an increase in the sales of its products in the market
1.4 FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESES:
H0: The product strategies adopted by LBN Plc have not helped to increase it sales.
H1: product strategies adopted by LBN Plc have helped to increase its sales.
H0: The pricing strategies applied by LBN have not helped to increase its products sales.
H2: The pricing strategies applied by LBN have helped to increase “its product’s sales.
H3: The distribution strategies of LBN have not helped to ensure availability of their products in the market place.
H0: The overall promotional strategies used±»y LBN have helped to increase its products’ sales.
H4: The overall promotional strategies used by LBN have not t helped to increase its products sales.
H0: The overall marketing strategies adopted by LBN have not helped to increase the sales of its products.
H5: The overall, marketing strategies adopted by LBN have helped to increase the sales of its products.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:
This study is carried out because it was
intended to help in solving a problem(s), and if the problem is solved,
it will benefit those who are affected by it.
It can be seen from the problems that
Lever Brothers Plc’s major difficulties are identified to be marketing
strategies. It is then hoped that this study will help the company to
adopt better marketing strategies that will improve the overall
marketing performance of products and equally enable them to realize
their business objectives as well as utilize all their opportunities.
In addition to this, the recommendations
made would provide initial steps in major decision areas facing the
company, such areas includes; decision on the determination of .the
present marketing strategies that can be used by LBN to improve the
performance of its products in the market place, and also for vital
expansion of business activities.
In addition, the study will enable the
readers to know that the success of a business depends on good marketing
strategies that will promote good image for the company and as well
increase their sales revenue.
It will also widen the marketer’s
knowledge about the various marketing strategies available and how they
can be effectively applied to any company’s products so as to improve
the irformance of their business.
It will equally aid LBN Plc immensely by
providing them with the appropriate marketing strategies to be adopted
in making high sales over.
Above all, the study will help other
people such as businessmen, industrialists and so on to know the value
of marketing strategies and how they can be effectively used to attract
new market and also win more market share from the existing market.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
The study covers the different marketing
strategies with regard to the 4p’s for improved performance of Lever
Brothers’ products with special emphasis to management, distributors and
customers of Lever Brothers Plc Products, Aba, Abia State.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:
There were many problems encountered by the researcher during the course of carrying out this project, some of which are:
Inadequate response experienced by the researcher from his respondents posed a hindrance to getting the desired results. Inadequate Finance:
The shortage of funds also affected the number of times the researcher would have visited the company situated in Aba. Insufficient Time:
The time expected to carry out this work
was too short, and as a result of other academic commitments, the
researcher would have gone to different places to get more facts for the
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS:
1. Market: Buyers or customers.
2. Marketing Strategies:
A consistent, appropriate, and feasible set of principles through which
a particular company hopes to achieve its long - run customer
satisfaction and profitability objectives in a particular competitive
3. Market Leader: A
firm in-an industry with the largest market share, it usually heads
other firms in price changes, new product introductions,
distribution coverage and promotion spending.
4. Market Challenger: A runner-up firm in an industry that is fighting hard to withstand the leader by increasing its market share.
The art of fitting a product to one or more segment of the broad market
in such a way as to set it apart from competition and optimize
opportunity for greatest sales and profit.