1.1. Background of the study
The term ‘broadcast media’ is quite
often mentioned these days. It is a new phenomenon and one would
probably imagine that everyone knows or understands what it means.
Nearly ninety percent (if not more) of all online or internet users use
broadcast media in one way or the other (Kietzmann and Kristopher, 2011;
Dolwick, 2009). The emergence of broadcast media began in the early
days of internet when people started sharing information and
communicating with one another (Boyd and Ellison, 2010) but
unfortunately; the platforms used then were more ‘technology intensive’
and required some level of expertise before use. Hence, the number of
people using broadcast media platforms then was limited.
Over a period of time as technology
advanced, platforms that are less sophisticated were developed thus,
enabling billions of regular internet users, without any technology
background, to use the services (Boyd et al., 2010; Baden, Bender,
Spring, Bhattacharjee and Strain, 2009) and this marked a turning point
in the history of the media, making the media all inclusive in such a
way that people no longer remain silent spectators to the content being
dished out to them. Now, they could create their own content, share it
with others, respond to people, collaborate with them and many more
(Andreas and Haenlein, 2010). This user interaction is what gave impetus
to the today’s increasingly emerging broadcast media platform.
Broadcast media medium such as, the
radio and television now allow member individuals to interact with one
another and to build relationships even many companies across the world
have joined but they joined only the fastest growing networks such as
Facebook and Twitter, so as to connect with their customers (Trattner
and Kappe 2012). The broadcast media networks act so fantastically as
the vehicle helping companies to gain traffic or attention to their
product and service usually through the use of Links via the adverts
they place on the broadcast media (Chinag and Chung, 2011; Deis and
Hensel, 2010). It also acts just as the traditional Word of Mouth in
mainstream marketing does. Corporate messages conveyed through broadcast
media spread very fast from users to users and presumably resonate in
favour of the company (Deis and Hensel, 2010). In these regards,
broadcast media networks, ever since 2002, have become the new 21st
century paradigmatic market medium for businesses to exploit (IMAP,
2010) and influence their customers’ purchasing behaviour more. This is
because, globally, a survey report reveals that about half of the 170
million Nigerians regualary make use of the broadcast media(Oracle
Retail, 2010) and sequel to this notion, virtually all businesses now
employ broadcast media networks as an extension of their existing
corporate marketing strategies especially the retail industry in order
to capture and serve customarily those active users with a broad range
of lifestyle brands of products across the universe. And in the light of
this, many firms in Nigeria also have started plunging into using these
platforms. This current study thus seeks to explore thepatronage
behaviour of Nigerian consumers via these growing broadcast media
networks especially from those companies that utilize them for their
1.2. Statement of the problem
One of the purposes of using the
broadcast media is to create awareness of the products advertised. In
order to achieve this aim, producers frequently advertise their products
(Jonathan1995). Despite the advertising of shopping goods such as men’s
packet shirts, women’s clothing, jewelry, television etc, consumers’
attention is not always drawn to it, because consumers in Rivers State
have their areas of interest and the type of goods they buy. They prefer
to buy by the road side or open market where they can bargain.
Advertising seeks to build a brand preference or to educate people
(Kotler, 2006). On the order hand, consumers in Rivers State show less
interest in brand preference. Some consumers prefer to buy by the road
side or in the open market where they can bargain. Most consumers prefer
to buy used 7 product than to buy quality products from the shop. In
Rivers State, there is little or no public communication media through
which consumers are educated about a product. Most consumers do not get
information about shopping goods that will be of benefit to them. for
example when a promo or discount are given for buying a product, some
consumers who do not have access to television, radio or public
communication media might not be aware. Shopping goods are those goods
consumers purchase after comparing quality, price, style, colour and
size (Kotler, 2003). On the contrary, consumers in Rivers State prefer
to consider cost, transportation and nearness to the market whenever
they want to buy their products. Osuala (1987) explained that sellers
advertise numerous general products, to increase sales of the products
category. But consumers in Rivers State consider advertised products
that are sold in the shops to be very expensive thereby prefer to buy in
the open market. Advertising based on sizes, colour, shapes, qualities
of televisions may influence consumers to buy, however consumers who do
not watch TV advertisement frequently will not be so influenced.
Furthermore, many consumers think it is a
waste of time, those who do not have access to television may not be
influenced by such advertisement, Though consumers in Rivers State
consider factors such as cost, income, transportation, nearness to
market etc. However consumers who buy 8 original products will prefer to
buy quality products from the shops. It is important therefore to
ascertain the influence of the broadcast media on the purchase of fast
moving consumer goods in Port Harcourt.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The study seeks to examine the
relationship between the Broadcast Media and Sales performance of Fast
moving Consumer Goods in Port Harcourt. The specific objectives are as
- To examine the association between Television Broadcasting and repeat Purchase of fast moving consumer goods in Port Harcourt.
- To examine the association between Radio broadcasting and sales volume of fast moving consumer goods in Port Harcourt.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions have been formulated and will be answered at the completion of this work.
- To what extent does Television Broadcasting enhancesrepeat purchase of fast moving consumer goods in Port Harcourt?
- To what extent does Radio broadcasting enhances sales volume of fast moving consumer goods in Port Harcourt?
1.5 Study variables/Conceptual Framework
Figure 1.1 Conceptual frameworks of Broadcast Media and Sales Performance
Source: Conceptualized from literature, 2016
1.5 Research Hypotheses
An attempt to make our final answers not to look like mere assumption the hypotheses of this study will be stated as follows:
is no significant association between Television Broadcasting and Repeat
Purchase of fast moving consumer goods in Port Harcourt.
is no significant association between Television Broadcasting and Sales
Volume in fast moving consumer goods in Port Harcourt.
is no significant association between Radio broadcasting and Repeat
Purchase in fast moving consumer goods in Port Harcourt.
Ho4: There is no significant association between Radio broadcasting and Sales Volume in fast moving consumer goods in Port Harcourt.
1.6 Significance of the study
The finding of this study would be of
importance to the business operators most especially proprietors of
shopping goods as it would create awareness of the importance of
advertising on the sale of their products. The findings of this study
would be of benefit to marketing students and lecturers in tertiary
institutions as they would have a broader understanding of how
advertising influence the sale of shopping goods. The findings of this
study would be of benefit to the Ministry of Commerce and Information.
It will give them an insight on the benefit of advertising on the sale
of shopping goods. It will also assist them on how to organize training
programmes for proprietors of small scale business. The findings of the
study would be of immense benefit to the media organization as the
knowledge gain from the findings would help them to be innovative in
their various approaches to advertising designs. Finally the findings of
this study would be a significant contribution to the existing body of
literature in the discipline
1.7 Scope of the study
This study is restricted to the influence of broadcast media on the sales of fast moving consumer products in Port Harcourt.
1.8 Limitation of the study
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in
sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in
the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The
researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic
work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the
1.9 Definition of terms
- Ø Consumer goods:goods bought and used by consumers, rather than by manufacturers for producing other goods.
- Ø Media:the main ways that large member of people
receives information and entertainment that is television, radio,
newspapers and internet.
- Ø Broadcast media:Broadcast media is the most
expedient means to transmit information immediately to the widest
possible audience, although the Internet currently challenges television
as the primary source of news. Most people now get their daily news
through broadcast, rather than printedmedia.