Communication is perhaps
the most important human survival skill because we all need it to
maintain contact with the world. This research study focused on the
nature, process, channels, and barriers in communications and their
effect on the effective marketing of Hi Malt. The researcher made on
indepth study of the various marketing communication tools. The study
also considered the various media through which sales messages get to
potential and prospective consumers, and the impact of there messages
against the background of competitive product brands.
To accomplish the purpose of
this research, related literature on the subject were viewed. The
researcher made use of both primary and secondary data.
The analysis of our data
revealed that consumers and aware of the presence of Hi Malt in the
market. Semantic barriers, choice of media and appeal to the wrong
target market reduce the impact of marketing communication activities.
It was also reverted that Hi malt as an indigenous malt drinks in
Nigeria does not enjoy an impressive marketing share of the malt drink
market. Furthermore, the findings revealed that the image of
consolidated breweries plc is a major influencing factor in the sale of
In the light of the researcher
findings, appropriate recommendation were made to enhance the impact of
marketing communication on the marketing of Hi-malt message in terms of
semantics and the adoption of the universal Malt battle type packaging
the researcher advocated into use because in many cares the image of the
product and the organization are interwoven, and the both plays
symbolic role. However, marketing communication as used in this study
is as relates to communication between the marketing organization and
their various external publish. Essentially, a marketing organization
needs some elements of marketing communication to inform and educate
members of its target audience about the existence of its goods &
series and to persuade them to patronize it of to develop favourable
attitude and opinions towards it. Over the years in Nigeria, companies
have been known to continually desistretegies to survive in their
various markets. This has become more imperative because of me easing
competition between companies whose aim is to gain better market share
and stars in business. Te situation is not helped by the economic
recession of the recent past years. As long as the economic wheel of
the nation turns, new products are introduced into the market in various
shapes and sizes to compete for a place with the already existing
products, some of the products enjoy a sizeable shares of the market,
other do not. The question then arises as to how to stimulate demand
for their product. While these may be other tractors that influences
demand for a product and hence its level of consumption, marketing
communication plays a vital role in stimulating demand. In many cases,
there have been barriers where they exists and reverse them to make for
more effective marketing.
Consolidated Breweries plc,
the organization responsible for the manufacturing, developments
distribution, sales and marketing of Hi-malt (the drink brand of our
study0 was incorporated in 1991. This company was born through the
merging of two breweries namely Eastern Breweries and continental
Breweries. The head quarter of this company was at Lagos and it also
has a branch plant at Awo-Omma in owner Imo state of Nigeria . they have
their depot to various states in Nigeria which Enugu is one of them.
It is from there breweries that two brands of product are produced
namely Hi-malt and “33” export lager beer are manufactured and
distributed to every hook and Granny of the country. The collective
success of the two brands in eh product portfolio has been responsible
for the company’s strength an towering statue.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objectives of study
1.4 Research questions
1.5 Statement of hypothesis
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Scope of the study
1.8 Definition of terms.
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Nature of communication
2.2 Process of communication
2.3 Channel / methods of communication
2.4 Barriers to communication
2.5 Marketing communication tools
2.7 Advertising objectives
2.8 Advertising budgets
2.9 Sales promotion
2.11 Personal selling
2.13 Public relations
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research methodology
3.2 Sources of data
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sample size determination
3.5 Questionnaire design
3.6 Method of questionnaire administration
3.7 Validation of research instrument
3.8 Method of data analysis
3.9 Limitation of the study
4.1 Data presentation and analysis
4.2 Tests of hypothesis
Summary of findings, presentation and conclusion
5.1 Summary of findings
5.4 Suggestion for further study
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
is fundamental to the existence of every individual, group or
organization. It is so vital that without it no individual, group,
product or organization can succeed. To my mind communication exists as
a major indispensable human need because people need to communicate
with others in order to share information, ideas, experience and
Communication can be viewed from different perspective and like many
etymologies, has the ramification and connotations. It could be viewed
from the standpoint of person to person relationship. It could be seen
from the background of communication chains in an organization or a
business setting. And it could indeed be viewed from the perspective of
the relationship between the organization and their external publics.
the development of this study, all the above perspectives of
communication may come into use because in many cases the image of the
product and the organization are interwoven and they both play a
symbolic role. However, marketing communication between the marketing
organization and their various external publics. Essentially, a
marketing organization needs some elements of marketing communication to
importance educate members of its target audience about the existence
of its goods and services and to persuade them to patronize it or to
develop favourable altitudes and opinions towards it.
Over the years in Nigeria, companies have been known to continually
design strategies to survive in their various markets. This has become
more imperative because of increasing competition between companies
whose aim is to gain a better market share and stay in business. The
situation is not helped by the economic recession of the recent past
years. As long as the economic wheel of the nation turns, new products
are introduced into the market in various shapes and sizes to compete
for a plea with the already existing products. Some of the products
enjoy a sizeable share of the market, others do not.
While there may be other factors that influence demand for a product and
hence its level of consumption. Marketing communication plays a vital
role in stimulating demand. In many cases there have been inadequate
communication and in others there have become barriers to marketing
communication. There is therefore the need to ascertain inadequacies
and barriers where they exist and reverse them to make for more
Consolidated breweries plc, the organization responsible for the
manufacturing, development, distribution, sales and marketing of Hi
Malt. (the malt drink brand of our study) was incorporated in 1991 as
consolidated breweries plc. The birth of this company was the merge
ring of continental breweries and eastern breweries in 1991. this two
companies were merged because they produce the same type of product
which is “33”. These companies came together in 1989 to agreed on each
other to be one. They merge in 1991 and brewery both “33” and Hi malt.
Eastern brewery produces ‘33” but when they merge, they called their
company consolidated brewery plc instead of answering any of their
former company name.
The company brewery two rarities of products namely “33” and Hi malt.
These companies have their headquarter at Lagos and they brewery only
“33” at Lagos. They have another branch at Awo-Omamma in Imo State.
They brewery both “33” and Hi malt at Awo-Omamma. They have many depot
all over the country which include Enugu, Abakaliki, Por-Harcourt,
Markurdi, Aba etc – they develop this depot to make sure that their
product are been circulated / reach to their target market. It is from
this brewery that “33” and Hi malt are manufactured and distributed to
every nook and cranny of the country. The collective success of these
two brands in the company’s product portfolio has been responsible for
the company’s strength and towering stature. Together, these products
have facilitated the strong leadership position of consolidated brewery
Plc in the total brewed products market in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
the years the malt drink market has witnessed the introduction of a
variety of malt drink products from various breweries. Many breweries
had to diversify their product range to met their overheads make profit
and stay in business in a period of recession.
The first malt drink that made in instant market success in Nigeria was
Maltex. This product was an imported brand from Europe. Maltex was in
fact a household name as it dominated the market in the early and mid
1970’s. Nigerian try to introduce maltina in 1976; then in 1991
consolidated breweries introduced their our Hi malt with the same bottle
with maltex. And other malt drink were introduced before and after Hi
malt include some are named maltina vita malt, Guinness malt all package
in maltex type bottle flooded the market. Except Guinness malt which
its bottle is a unique one.
The choice of topics for this thesis is dictated by the scenario pointed
above. The major problem of this study therefore is to determine the
extent marketing communication can play a role in the marketing
communication in the effective of marketing of Hi malt drink.
In this regard, and given the above background, I intend to take on the following sub-problems:
determine areas of inadequacy in communication and to ascertain whether
enhanced communication will teed to effective marketing of the product.
b. To determine the reach and impact of advertising and buyers and potential consumers.
investigate whether buyers and potential consumers of the product
understand and share the ideas and information directed to them.
investigate the feedback mechanism as a way of ascertaining that
management follows up marketing communication with adequate assessment
of level of understanding and acceptability of the message by the public
with a new to increasing sales.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objectives of the study are:
a. To find out marketing communication modes techniques and systems in use of the marketing of Hi malt.
b. To assess the effectiveness of such modes, techniques and systems in the marketing of the product.
explain whether barriers and inadequacies in communication and other
related factors or impede effective marketing of the product.
suggest ways of addressing identified problems based on the findings
and recommendation better strategies for the effective marketing of Hi
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following forms are my research question in this study.
a. Does inadequate communication hamper consumption of Hi malt drink?
b. To it advertising that influences purchase of Hi malt or is it manufactures good will?
c. Do barriers to communication affect volume of sales of Hi malt drink.
d. Does two way communication have the potential to increase the volume of sales of Hi malt?
a change in the packaging of Hi malt in lane with bottle type of other
malt drink positively effect consumption or shelf display of the
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
HO:- Effective marketing communication increase customers satisfaction with Hi malt.
HI:- Effective marketing communication does not increase customer satisfactions with Hi malt.
HO: Advertising does not creak awareness for Hi malt in the market.
HI: Advertising creates awareness for Hi malt in the market
HO: Effective use of personal selling increases customers patronage for Hi malt.
HI: Effective use of personal selling does not increase customer patronage for Hi malt.
HO; Sales promotion stimulates more purchase of Hi malt on the market.
HI: Sales promotion does not strumlate more purchase of Hi malt in the market.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
We must admit
that although more less has been said and written in the importance of
marketing communication endence still abound to show that many marketing
organizations either do not bother to imbibe and hence pratise basic
communication principles or are deficient in the proper skills and
rudiments of marketing strategy the result of this state, the respect
the researcher aims of focusing the attention of marketing
Today, the emphasis of the Nigeria government is on employment,
privatization, commercialization, competition, economic growth an
development. Marketing communication has the potentials of stimulating
the economy and also improving organizational performance.
is hoped that the findings of this study and subsequent recommendation
will benefit not only the selected organization and performance of its
product in the market but other marketing organization and product
areas. On the whole, the study is significance became it will be useful
to scholars as new problems are likely to be recovered in the processed
Finally, this study will contribute to knowledge since the investigation is essentially aimed at problem solving.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
the art and science of transmitting, information, idea, attitudes or
opinions, facts, instructions, thoughts and images from one person to
another or one group to another.
MARKETING COMMUNICATION: Communication
undertaken to persuade others to accept ideas, concepts or things.
Marketing communication could use marketing communication could use
marketing promotional tools, namely advertising personal selling, sales
promotion, publicity and public relations. This is so because promotion
is the marketing communication process utilizing personal or
non-personal mean to remind, inform and persuade buyers or potential
buyers of the organizations products.
social system or an organized body of persons working together to
achieve a common purpose. Examples include business or marketing
organization in the context of this study means marketing organization.
IDEA: Thought, plan, picture in the mind, purpose opinion.
technical communication fargon for discussing idea formation. It is
therefore the thought or an idea which the sender wants to relay to the
act of putting the massage together in a certain code or symbols that
can be understand by both the source and receiver. These codes or
symbols could be words, letters, sentences or signs that represent the
idea of the source of communication. Encoding can therefore be
described as the transmission by the source of an already conceived idea
into a message appropriate for transmission to the recover.
translation of an encoded message giving it meaning. This is done by
the receiver and it is important that there is a clear understanding of
the transmuted message.
refers to the signals sent from the hastener / receiver to the speaker /
source in order to tell the speaker how far he is understood and
possible report the acceptability or non-acceptability, of the message.
It also indicate whether individuals, organizational or consumer
behavioural change has taken place as a result of communication.
EFFECTIVENESS: The ability to bring about the desired or intended result or extent to which it is accomplished.
MEDIA / CHANNELS: This is the means by which a message travels from sources to a receiver or audience and back. It is the message carrier.
product is any thing produced by nature or by man which a buyer
acquires or purchase to satisfy a need or want. It has to be priced and
PRODUCT PORIFOLIO: Product range, units or group handled by an organization.
EXTERNAL PUBLICS: Individuals
or organization an individuals or an organization communicates with.
They includes consumer, communicates, neighbours, dealers, distributors,
suppliers, shareholders, government agencies, educators and other
DEMAND: The amount or quantity of product or goods that the consumers with, to purchase at a particular price at a specific time.
choice or choosing a particular brand from different brands of the same
product category or preferring a particular brand in a wide variety of
other products of the same product category.
CONSUMERS PERCEPTION: The way Hi malt advertisements are seem be consumers.
TARGET MARKET: Target
market is that area where the company’s product is affectively
patronized or the area the company’s product is affectively patronized
or the area the company expects and plans effectively patronage.
SALESMANS/ SALES REPRESENTATNES: These
are able bodied men employed and in some cases trained by a company for
the sales of its products through demonstration and personal conviction
of customer about the product.
FREE SAMPLES: Free
samples are a quantity of a company’s product that are used or given to
prospective customers free when the products is new and unknown in the
market. It is done to create product awareness.
budget is a financial / quantitative statement prepared and approved
prior to a specific period of operation of an enterprise. It is normally
used as guide for production, expenditure and sales.
or activity of securing non-paid significant editorial space, news,
stories and features in all media read, reviewed or head by a company’s
customers or prospects for the specific purpose of gaining credibility
and attention an ultimately meeting the sales goals of the organization.
SALES PROMOTION: These
are a number of techniques that marketer use to stimulate immediate
sales. Thee technique or activities includes contests, trade shows,
sampling, and premiums, sales promotion is designed to supplement and
co-ordinate person selling and advertising efforts.
PERSONAL SELLING: This
is person to person communication meant to assist a sales person
personate a prospect to bring a product or to act favourably upon an
idea or a cause.
communication is the media, paid for by an identifiable sponsor and
directed at a target audience with the aim of importing information
about a product, services, idea or opinion.
PUBLIC RELATIONS: Is
a philosophy of management whose aim and objectives is the
establishment of understanding report and goodwill between an
organization and its public, public relation uses a two way
communication system between the organization and its publics to achieve
its social management philosophy.