The aim of this study was to investigate on taxation and its effects
in the Nigeria economy. One of the objective carried out by the
researcher was to examine peoples perception on taxation.
Taxation is seen as a tool aimed at improving the performance of the
national economy by such means as altering the balance between current
consumption and capital investment.
It looked at the work of other authors in order to make the exercise
richer. Their different views were seen in different books and other
materials (journal) which made this study much better than similar works
in this area.
In carrying out this study, the researcher used both primary and
secondary data. Qestionnaries and interviews were used in generating the
primary data while the secondarry data were obtained through library
researcher and other sources.
The purposive sample of 147 respondents were randomly selected for
the study to avoid numerous errors in the calculation. From the data
collected and analysed, it was evident that tax collection plays a great
role in the development of the Nigeria economy.
Conclusively, discussion, summary, conclusion, and recommendations were made to achieve the purpose of this work.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of content
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Purpose of study
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Scope and delimitation
1.6 Definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Taxation theory
2.2 The objectives and importance of taxation and economic policy.
2.3 Imposition of taxes and income chargeable under various tax laws and acts and the relevant tax authority.
2.4 Ascertainment of income for tax purposes.
2.5 Types and qualities of taxation.
2.6 Tax effects on the economy.
2.7 Tax effects on production and distribution.
2.8 Tax effecttt on consumption and savings.
2.9 Tax effects on investment and efficiency.
2.10 Tax evasion and avoidance.
2.11 Current charges in personal income taxation.
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH, DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research instruments.
3.2 Sources of data.
3.3 Sampling procedure.
3.4 Statistical treatmente
3.5 Dta analysis.
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA.
4.1 Data analysis,presentation and interpretation.
4.2 Test of hypothesis.
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.
5.1 Summary of findings.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Taxation is the system of raising money in form of taxes paid by the
citizens of the country in return for the services rendered by the
It could be recalled that taxation is instituted by God, this is
traced back to “Mattew chapter 22 vs. 17-21”, when the Pharisees asked
Jesus whether it is lawful to pay taxes or not. The Pharisees were later
told render therefore to Caesars the things that are Caesar’s and to
God the things that are to God.
According to Lekan .S. etal (2006), tax was described and not
defined in the statues, but according to Cambridge international
dictionary of English, it is “an amount of money paid to the government
usually a percentage (%) of personal income or company profits”.
According to Okpe I.I (2000) tax is the transfer of resources and
income from the private sector to the public sector in order to achieve
some of the nation’s economic and social goals.
Taxation is universally accepted as a powerful tool in the hands of
any government to raise income for its services and to ensure equitable
distribution of income among its citizens.
Therefore, in every modern communities, a large amount of taxation is
necessary for a public expenditure increases to promote social
progress, taxation which is the main sources of funds also increases.
The present tax laws in Nigeria emanated from the Raismais commission
in 1957. Before this time we only had what was called the income tax
ordinance for the colonies and which was rather common in all the
colonies and the provisions were very similar. Raim’s recommendation
was the basis of provision in the Nigerian constitution order council of
1960 section 70(1) which conferred an exclusive power upon the
parliament to make laws for Nigeria or any part thereof with certain
uniform principles in respect of personnel income tax.
During 1963 when Nigeria became a republic, the mid-western region
was created out of the western region and they adopted the western
region tax law accordingly with the amendments, the position under the
republican constitution of 1963 and that the regions (now divided into
states) assumed jurisdiction over the income tax of person other than
companies. While the federal government assumed jurisdiction over the
taxation of companies, the uniform principles under the income tax
management act and the regional taxes in the federal territory of Lagos.
Thus, after the creation of former 12 states in 27th may 1967, the
state assumed the tax laws of the regions in which they were before the
creation of such states. The uniform principle covered by the income tax
management act of 1961 were as follows:
(i) Specifies what income are exempted from tax.
(ii) What constitute income for tax purposes.
(iii) Upholds residence on the basis for taxation or in the alternative, the principal place of business.
(iv) And recently prescribed the rates of tax and personal reliefs.
1.2: STATEMENTOF THE PROBLEM
There is high incidence of tax evasion and avoidance by tax payers.
This may affect the amount of revenue collectible by the government for
the running of administration.
Furthermore, it is hoped that people were wrongly assessed and the assessment sometimes result to regressive taxation.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study include the following:
(a) To examine the causes and reasons for high tax evasion and avoidance.
(b) To generate revenue to help the government to finance ever-increasing public sector expenditure.
(c) To promote social, economic, and good governance through provision of merit goods.
(d) To examine the effect on economy, the high incidence of tax evasion and avoidance.
(e) To examine people’s perception on taxation.
1.4: SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The topic “taxation and its effects of the Nigerian economy”, will
educate the entire public on how the federation could encourage economic
development and also how a reduced tax could promote the standard of
living of the tax payer and increases his capital formation and
investment thereby, resulting in a higher gross National Product(GNP) of
the economy(country) and also promote the industrial development of the
nation and Enugu state in particular.
The study will be of immense benefit to the following group of persons.
(a) Government of the federation of Nigeria, especially the Enugu State Government.
(b) The business community for the purpose of companies income tax.
(c) The tax experts especially the practicing professional accountants.
(d) Enugu state university community.
(e) The Nigerian Institute of Management and Nigerian Statisticians.
(f) The economist and financial analysts or capitalist.
(g) The students of Accountancy profession and other allied professions.
(h) The tax-payers, especially the employers of labour and the employees of various organisations.
(i) Tax researchers.
1.5:SCOPE AND DELIMITATION.
This topic, taxation and its effect on the Nigerian economy(A case
study of Enugu state tax system and economy) should have been expected
to cover all the 36 states of the federation and Abuja and the entire
economy but the writer intends to limit this topic to only Enugu state
due to financial handicap, distance and time constraints.
Therefore, since the same tax Acts are applied throughout the
federation Republic of Nigeria, the study of Enugu tax system and
economy shall be deemed to serve other states of the federation. Thus,
the writer will rely heavily on the board of internal Revenue and state
ministry of finance and Economy planning since they have adequate
information and data on the government of Enugu state of Nigeria,
thereby covering all the local government areas of the state.
Since there are often changes in the tax laws of Acts both at the
state and federal level of government, the writer may wish to visit the
chief inspector of taxes of some urban and rural local government areas
in the state in other to confirm the information or data so collected
from the Board of Internal Revenue and the state Ministry of Finance and
1.6 DEFINTION OF TERMS.
I.T.M.A: Income tax management Act of 1961, which deals with chargeable income and how they are administered.
C.I.T.A: Companies income tax Acts of 1979 which deals with profit chargeable in respects to companies.
P.I.T.D: Personal income tax degree/Act of 1993 as amended deals with profit chargeable in respect of individuals.
HYPOTHESIS: It is an idea or suggestion put forward for reasoning or explanation .subject to confirmation or rejection.
LAW OF TERRITORY: This means any enforce in a particular territory example, state, or country.
METHODOLOGY: It is the science or study of methods or ways to be adopted in a given direction.
TAX EVASION: This means trying to escape tax liability by an individual.
DIRECT TAXES: This means that taxes are levied on income and property
of individuals or group of individuals who bears their full burden.
INDIRECT TAXES: These are the taxes levied on goods and services and
are paid by individuals by virtue of their associating with the goods
EARNED INCOME: It is the income which the tax payer actually earned,
which may require mental and physical exercise such as salaries, wages, e
UNEARNED INCOME: This income accrue whether or not the tax payer is
there or not, example, rent, interest, royalties, and dividends.
OTHER INCOMES: It is the income which comes once in a while and they
are not regular, thereby undetermined example, gift of windfall income,
lottery winnings e t c.
Lekan, S. (2006). Taxation Principles And Practice In Nigeria. Ibadan: Publishing
Okpe, I.I. (2000). Personal Income Tax In Nigeria.Enugu: Ochumba printing and Publishing
Ola, C.S. (1981). Income Tax Laws For Corporate And Unincorporated Bodies in Nigeria.
Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books Limited.
Osita, A.(2004). Taxation And Tax Management In Nigeria . Eungu: Meridian Associates