BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Advertisement is one of the four major tools that companies use to
direct persuasive communication to target buyers and publics. It
consists of non- personal or one-way forms of communication conducted
through paid media under clear sponsorship. The advertisers included not
only commercial firms but museums, fund raiser and various social
action organisations seeking to advertise their causes to various target
publics. As a matter of fact, the thirty four largest advertising
spender in the u.s is the American government within the commercial
sector, the top one hundred national advertisers account for approximate
one-fourth (1/4) of all national advertising.
The U.S. soft industry began in the late 1880s. John S. Penberton, an
Atlanta pharmacist. Developed the coca-cola brand as a soda fountain
drink in 1886 and poisoned it as a “brain tonic and intellectual
beverage” (Govan and livingood 1977). Both the coca-cola brand and
company took an early lead in the soft-drink industry. For the achieved
national distribution early on and the company has consistently
dominated the industry.
Currently, coca-cola products are sold in about 200 countries with
more than 230 different brands. Best-known beverage brands in the U.S
include coke. Diet coke, mello yellow, fanta, minute maid, Mr. pibb,
Nestea, sprite, Barq`s Root Bear, Dasani Water, Fresca, Fruitopia, and
Hi-c (www. Coca-cola.com 2002) seven-up Bottling Company Plc was founded
in 1951 by the late Sheik Mohammed El-Khalil. Production started on
October 1st 1960. Our brands include 7-up, Pepsi, Mirinda (orange, soda,
tonic), and teem. Flavours are added as and when need is justified. We
are committed to a culture of excellence in all our activities. Hence,
we strive to position our
company to meet and exceed the expectations of our employees,
customers, suppliers, shareholders, government and its agencies,
including the general public.
In line with the following; our mission is
“To refresh and inspire a youthful lifestyle”
“To be the most admired and innovative company in Nigeria
Although advertising is primarily a private enterprise marketing
tool, it is used in all the countries of the world including socialist
countries. Advertising is a cost effective way to dissemination
messages, whether it is to build brand preference for coca cola all over
the world or to motivate a developing nations consumer to drink milk or
to practice birth control.
Organization obtains their advertising in different ways. In small
companies advertising is handled by someone in the sales or marketing
department, work with an advertising agency. Large companies set up
their own advertising departments, whose managers report to the vice
president of marketing. The advertising department job is to develop the
total budget approve advertising agency advert and campaigns and handle
direct mail advertising, dealer displays and other forms of advertising
not ordinarily performed by the agency. Most companies use an out side
advertising agency to help them create advertising campaigns and to
select and purchase media.
In developing an advertising programme marketing managers must always start by identifying the target market and buyer motives.
The advertising Naira support various media magazine and newspaper
space; radio television; out door displays (poster, billboards, signs,
skywriting); direct mail; novelties (match boxes, pens, calendars); tear
pads (carbus) catalogues; directories (yellow pages), and circulars.
And advertising has many purposes; long term build-up of the
organizations, corporate image (institutional advertising), long term
build-up of a particular brand (brand advertising) information
dissemination about a sale, or event (classified advertising),
announcement of a special sale (sale promotional advertising) and
advocacy of a particular cause (advocacy advertising).
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Although, there has been a great deal of work directed at evaluating
advertising effect on product and or services, this has remain unsolved.
Giles (1983) said “it is virtually impossible except in mail-order
selling or certain direct mail campaign to quantify exactly the
contribution of advert to profit.”
Stanton (1983), also said that its difficult to identify the result
of any given advert or an entire campaign. He also said that one
couldn’t attribute a given unit of sales to any specific advertisement
Based on the above context, one can categorically say that its
difficulty to trace the impact of advert to the success of a product.
Increment in sales volume of any soft drink could have been as a result
of any other than advertising effectiveness.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
1 To determine what patterns the advertising message can take and how effective are these pattern.
2 To highlight on the various types of media and the factors to consider before choosing any particular types.
3 To evaluate the effectiveness of advertising through sales and communication research.
4 To suggest the ways and manners through which advertising problems can be tackled and improved upon.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
TO PGDE/marketing students or would- be researchers, this will
provide a pedestal upon which a better and improved research work can be
To the employers and employees of the various soft drinks industry,
some of the suggestion made in this write up will be of immense benefit
to them in terms of strategies development and increase in sales volume
and profitability through the various strategies that is suggested.
To other library users, this will be of immense benefit to them.
ASSUMPTION OF THE STUDY
The following assumptions are inherent in this study.
1. The researcher assume that irrespective of the amount of money
that is spent on advertising, it will not yield an equal corresponding
amount of increase in sales
2. However, it is generally assumed that a small amount of money
spent on promotion (advertising) will yield a significant amount of
The following research question will be raised by the researcher.
1. What’s the pattern of advertising message and how effective are these patterns?
2. What are the various types of advertising media and the factors to consider before choosing a particular type?
3. How can the advertising effectiveness be evaluated?
4. Recommendations were based on manners through which advertising problems can be tacked and improved upon.
DEVELOPMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
Ho 1: There is no significance difference in
the mean responses of staff of 7up bottling and coca cola on types
advertisement messages and its effectiveness.
Ho 2: There is no significance difference in
the mean responses of staff of 7up co and coca-cola co on advertising
media and factors to consider before choosing a media type.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research work will only cover the sales and activities of soft
drinks products as well as its organisations and various depots around
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
PROMOTION: - Is all that which is associated with
the stimulation, inducing and persuading individuals or group of people
towards a particular act, ideas, information, an object or product.
ADVERTISING: - this is any paid form of non-personal presentation of information, ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor.
ABOVE-THE-LINE-MEDIA:- it is advertising using conventional media such as radio, television, newspapers, cinemas etc.
BELOW-THE-LINE-MEDIA- advertising using other means other than the conventional methods. E.g free gifts and material.
APPROPRIATION:- this is the money budgeted for advertising campaign.
ADVERTISING MEDIA:- this is used to refer to the channels used in conveying the advertising message.
ADVERTISEMENT:- this is used to refer to the message being packaged and sent across to the customers or prospective customers.