This study examines critically constraints to marketing fish and fish
product by farmers in Afikpo north l. g. a of Ebonyi state. It has been
observed that fish marketing in Afikpo north l. g. a of Ebonyi state
urban is a lucrative venture. Although, fishes are marketed in different
forms either as fresh, smoked or dried fish. Marketers have lots of
challenges, which the researcher has tried to proffer solutions to as
attested by the majority of the respondents. The researcher used primary
and secondary methods of data collection to gather the needed data. The
data obtained through questionnaires were presented in tables and
analyzed using the simple percentage. The findings have also shown that
factors which militate against successful marketing of fish in Afikpo
north l. g. a of Ebonyi state are: price, bad infrastructure. The study
recommends that Fish marketers should form a co-operative society to
enable them obtain loan from financial institutions so as to expand
their marketing activities. Government and private organization should
encourage fish marketers by building an organized market and effecting
free trade within the study area.
Marketing plays an important role in a market economy. The role of
marketing as an incentive to fish production and productivity cannot be
over emphasized. According to Chikwenwu (2005:12), the marketing of
agricultural commodities in Nigeria involves various markets or exchange
points. The number of exchange points depends on the nature of the
point of production and that of consumption. If the marketing process is
efficient, it will go a long way in providing sufficient food to the
populace through the process of market mechanism Lawal, I. (2004:12).
The influence of market mechanism on price to a great extent determines
the amount of food which peoples can afford. The effect of marketing
process is assessed by the ability of the market to create time, place
form and possession utility. Since rapid preservation and transport
became available in the 19th to 21st century fish such as poor
socio-economic environment like access road, developed market, school
for children etc, poor storage facilities and fish spoilage, effect on
cost-returns of fish marketers, constraints of fish marketing such as
transportation, Epileptic power supply in the cold room, high cost of
fish, poverty, financial and processing problems. Idega, N. (2004:34),
hunger and malnutrition remain amongst the most devastating problems
facing the world poor and needy. About 80 to 90 million people have to
be fed yearly and most reliable source of protein for many is fish, yet
millions of people who depend on fish are faced daily with the fear of
food shortage and Dittoh, (1985). With the population of Nigeria on the
rise, there is a corresponding demand for fish consumption. Thus, there
is the need for a suitable agricultural system to meet the increasing
demand for food, and also maximize the utilization of the available
limited resources without much wastage. Integrated fish farming is a
diversified and coordinated way of farming with fish as the main target
along with other farm products. According to Akinleye, (2004:12),
despite the abundance of human and natural resources, Nigeria depends
largely on importation to meet its fish consumption needs. Fish is one
of the most diverse groups of animals known to man with more than 20,500
species. In fact, to many Nigerians on the coastal areas, creeks and
rivers, fish is one of their major sources of protein which is essential
for healthy human growth Downey, (1972:65). The shortfall has resulted
in a low animal per capital consumption rate of 7.5 kg against the 13 kg
recommended by the food and agriculture organization. Fishing is as old
as mankind. It has been established throughout the world. Of the 36
states of the federation, nine are located on the coast with access to
the Atlantic Ocean Kow, T. (2002:12). With this Scenario, the natural
markets can technically be established at any place. In marketing, fish
passes through various market participant and exchange pounds before
they reach the final consumer. These market intermediaries are the whole
sellers and retailers. Both play important role in the marketing
system. Furthermore, due to the cumbersome nature of fish distribution
channel, the local fish seller is faced with the problem of profit
maximization Akanni (2007:12). Thus, the result is that activities in
this sector are mainly dominated by private sector presence with little
or no mobilization from the government. Therefore, any attempt used at
improving a country’s marketing system has to start with a correct
analysis of the problem. Fish is one of the best sources of protein food
because of its balanced amino acids configuration, digestibility and
low cholesterol level. To this end, the demand for fish has been on the
increase. (Olukosi et al., 2007:53), hence, in 1981, 384000
tons of fish were consumed in Nigeria out of which 296000 tons were
produced locally and the balance imported (FAO, 1989). Fish also
contribute 6-8% of agricultural sector total contribution to GDP (FAO,
1989). The fishery sub-sector provides employment opportunities to many
Nigerians including those involved in direct fish processing and
marketing Amos, (1998). It is important to evaluate marketing systems
of fish because they indicate how the various market participants are
organized to accomplish the movement of the commodity from the producer
to the ultimate consumer. Marketing of fish is not usually on the basis
of fisherman to consumer. There are several middlemen in the link
between producers (fishermen) and consumers (Adegeye, I. (1993:232).
Therefore price of fish changes as it passes through middlemen such that
by the time it reaches the final consumer, it has increased
considerably. Since proper marketing of fish ensures that fish is made
available to all and sundry, it therefore becomes imperative that
assessment of fish marketing be carried out to determine the viability
and effectiveness of marketing system of fish. Marketing of fish could
be regarded as the performance of all business activities involved in
the flow of fish from the point of production (fisherman or fish farmer)
to the final consumer Olukosi et al., (2007:76). Efficient
marketing system is significant in a country under all condition and at
all stage of its development. Effective marketing system will locate
where there are surpluses of produce and bring them to where there are
shortages (Chikwenwu and).
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
It is important to know that the lesser familiar a species is, the
greater the risk that it will be rejected or take a long way to build up
demand for it, people’s taste are formed slowly and strongly influenced
by traditional eating habits. As prices rise, less is bought and as
prices fall, more is bought and poor people are more likely to look for
cheaper substitutes than rich people. Thus, in terms of the price
dynamics, marketing costs and the marketing functions inherent in the
distribution of fish and in relation to how efficient the marketing
system is. Spatial price behavior is an important indicator of overall
market performance in terms of marketing efficiency. The constraints of
adequate capital needed for efficient marketing activities and problems
of diversification of the economy which gives equal priority to all real
productive sectors. In many countries, a common problem in fish
marketing is loss of profit due to fish spoilage, post harvest losses
occur more frequently in the rainy reason than in the dry season. Thus,
the present development encountered by the fish traders according to
- Lack of improved technology for the management of fish production.
- The current methods of harvesting are inefficient.
- Wasteful and exploitative.
Problem of establishing adequate fishing, production and marketing
policies, devoid of sentiments, tribalism and ethnicity the major
constraints facing fish marketing in Nigeria are pronounced in the
various pre-harvesting methods of fishery products in Nigeria. Such
methods involve the usage of mainly artisan and to an extent, commercial
(trawler system). Infrastructural problems particularly transportation
do militate against the development of fish marketing in Nigeria.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To examine the constraint associate with the effective fish marketing.
2. To examine the strategies for effective fish marketing.
3. To assess the benefit of fish to Nigerian Economy.
4. To identify the impact of fish in human body.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the constraint associates with the effective fish marketing?
2. What are the strategies for effective fish marketing?
3. What are the benefits of fish to Nigerian Economy?
4. What are the impacts of fish to human?
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In this research, the significance of this study is to bring together
the various ways and facts as regards to subject matter, constraints to
marketing fish and fish product by farmers in Afikpo North L. G. A of
Ebonyi state Nigeria.
1. It is believed that the outcome of this research work will be of interest to farmers and to even to the consumers.
2. The research work will provide them with vital information
regarding constraints to marketing fish and fish product by farmers in
Afikpo North L. G. A of Ebonyi state Nigeria. The farmers can utilize
this study to make amendments or control a number of lapses that may be
affecting the effective marketing fish product by farmers in Afikpo
North L. G. A of Ebonyi state Nigeria, in terms of high price and lack
3. It will also highlight the benefits of effective marketing of fish
product by farmers in Afikpo North L. G. A of Ebonyi state Nigeria to
increase the status of the farmers.
4. This research work will also serve as a vital material to those
who may want to carry out further research work in this regard.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research study is limited to Afikpo North L. G. A of Ebonyi
state Nigeria alone where the researcher wants to find out constraints
to marketing fish and fish product by farmers.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The following limitations are inherent in the study.
The researcher in the process of gathering information and relevant fact face some naturally and man-made constraints such as:
(i) Time factor: owing to the fact that this study
is carried out within the time the researcher is battling in her
semester work, she could not have enough time to gather some information
and materials reached for the work at its disposal.
(ii) Lack of finance: the researcher as a student
still depends mostly on the goodwill of the parents and sponsor for the
reached finance. As a result of this the resources available at its
disposal for the research work is not enough. It therefore handicapped
her from getting asses to all the reached materials for the study.
(iii) Materials resource: the researcher find it
difficultly to reached some textbook, journal, thesis to carried out the
work, due to inability of the researcher to cope with time and finances
to carry out the time assign task.
(iv) Human Element: this study has some human
element, and such cannot be said to be perfect. It base on the concept
of reasonable assurance, despite the existing limitation of the study,
the researcher assumes that all the information obtains is the best of
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Economy: - This is the process of production,
distribution or trade and consumption of limited goods and service by
different agents in a given geographical location.
Fish: - This is any member of a paraphyletic group
that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic craniates animals that lack
limbs with digits.
Marketing: - Is communicating the value of a
product, service or brand to customers, for the purpose of promoting or
selling that product, service, or brand.
Mechanism: - This is rigid bodies connected by joints in order to accomplish a desire force or motion transmission.
Productivity: - This is an average measure of the
efficiency of production. It can be expressed as the ratio of output to
input used in the production process, i.e output per unit of input.