This study examines the conflict in
Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The
region is blessed with oil and mineral resources that have continued to draw
attention in the oil industry since the discovery of oil in commercial quantity
in the mid 1950’s. The exclusion of the
area from the benefits of the oil appears to have fueled the crisis of
agitation by the people of the region.
The project work takes as its
baseline, the examination of the Niger Delta people and pre-modern conflict
era, oil exploration and conflict in the region, the nature of the crisis and
its dimension. Also, the effort at
resolving the crisis form military option to amnesty programme. A critical look at post-amnesty programme.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Aim / Objective 3
the Study 4
Scope of Study 6
The Niger Delta;
its people, cultures and values 12
The Nature of
Niger delta crisis 30
option that escalates the crisis
Conflicts in the Region 38
Relative Peace 70
The Niger Delta area is the most
fragile region in Nigeria. The presence
of oil and gas in the region makes it the goose that lays the golden egg, thus
making the region the center of economic and political activities in the
The Niger Delta was a foremost part of
the area later to be called Nigeria and incorporated into the Atlantic world
economy from the 16th century.
Thus, the region developed a monetized economy and become ahead of
contemporary developments in others part of the future Nigeria, leading to a
substantial degree of prosperity and the development of a proud culture in the
region. This rare feat constitutes the
basis for the formation of own identity.
However, the struggle for self
determination and proper distribution of resources among groups within the
region and Nigerians ethnic group started with the formation and consolidation
of the Nigeria colonial state from the 1940’s.
This struggle became inevitable because Niger Delta is a dispersal of
small ethnic groups which were force together with predatory and dominant
majority ethnic groups.
This minority question was never
addressed before Nigeria got her independence in 1960 despite The Henry
Commission of 1956 that attempted to solve the issue of minority. The point here is to present a fact that the
Niger Delta crisis is rooted in the foundation and structure of the Nigeria
state. Over the years the question has
contributed greatly to the emergence of violence in Niger Delta region over oil
and mineral resources. The insurgency in
Niger Delta whether oil or crude oil benefit bother on the foundation and
structure of Nigeria state.
These works examine the Niger Delta
people before 1960. The research
contends that before independence, the people of the region live in peace
despite some record of conflict among the ethnic groups in Niger Delta
region. The origin of crisis in Niger
Delta region and also took a look at the attempt at addressing the crisis
through military option to peaceful means.
The aims and objectives of this study
To examine as baseline study that Niger Delta
people and the extent to which it relates with others.
To examine the Genesis of the crisis of
agitation in the region and how it affects the Nigeria state.
To examine the military option which hitherto
escalate the Niger Delta crisis to insurgence in the country.
To examine the nature of the conflict as it
portents to undermine the economy of Nigeria.
To identify and evaluate the amnesty programmes
as relevant approach in addressing the Niger Delta struggle.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The Niger Delta question is an
important discourse in Nigeria today.
This is so because of the discovery of oil in the region, thus making
the region the life wire of the country economy. Over the years resource has turn to serious
issue as a result of the neglect of the region.
The distribution and the development oil has led to violence and armed
conflict between the people and the federal government.
The relevance of this study is to
investigate into the genesis of the problem and provide a framework for a
critical analysis of why it is important to ensure that the amnesty idea is the
best possible solution to the resolution of the crisis. This work will provide first hand information
for further research.
In the course of research for this work
relevant data and information were obtained from the main sources. These were primary and secondary source.
sources which were utilized in the course of the research for this work from
archival research. Material was consulted
at the Edo State Library, Benin City, Benin Institute of Studies, Benin City
and the national archive at Ibadan. They
include intelligence report other documents relating to this works.
source which consulted in some university and public libraries across the
country include textbooks, journals and periodicals information obtained from
primary sources. These sourced helped to
provide data for a critical analysis of conflict management in the Niger Delta
that will study Amnesty programme.
SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of this study on conflict
management in the Niger Delta: A case study of the Amnesty programme is limited
to the genesis of the Niger Delta question on the struggle for equal
distribution of resources which later manifested to oil and mineral resources
control. Its manifestation took the
shape of violence and insurgence that inevitably led to military option until
There is yet not much academic work on
conflict management in the Niger Delta:
A case study of the Amnesty Programme.
This however, cannot be said of Nigeria where there are a number of
works deal on the Nigeria evolution as a state in politics, economy and the
society. There is however, certain
literature that deal on relevant aspects on conflict management in Niger
Delta. Some of the literature in this
group include A. Boro work “A twelve Day Revolution” 1R.T. Akinyele “Patriarch of Minority activities in the
Niger Delta”2 O. Ikime The
merchant prince of the Niger Delta3. Boro, it highlight the need for a revolution
as the solution to the continue exclusion of the area from benefiting from the
oil. Akinyele work examine that the
domination by the three major groups via Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo as the remote
cause of the crisis in the region which border on unequal distribution of
government services and institution and exploitation of the resources. Suberu work identified five broad themes as
the basis for the people demand and grievances, the disposition of mineral law
rent, the application of federally collected mineral revenues, the appropriate
institutions and fiscal response to the ecological problem of the oil producing
area, the responsibility of the oil prospecting companies to the oil producing
communities and the appropriate arrangement of securing the integrity and
autonomy of the oil producing communities within the federal structure.
The works are base on conflict in
Niger Delta and the problems in the region.
This however, would assist in the theoretical analysis of this study.
From the above, it can be seen that
none of the existing literature has carried out any substantial analysis of the
subject of our study, as their primary focus was on conflict and problem in the
This however, it will provide the
framework for a comprehensive and detailed analysis for this work. Thus, this work will provide a useful and
detailed idea for further research on the conflict management in Niger Delta.
This project work is divided into five
Chapter One: The Niger Delta; its people, cultures and
values. This chapter provides a brief
historic background of the Niger Delta people.
Chapter Two: The Nature of Niger delta crisis (2003 to
2011). This chapter provides the analysis
of the agitation move from peaceful on to insurgence in the region.
Chapter Three: The military option that escalates the crisis.
Chapter Four: The Amnesty Programme
Chapter Five: Conclusion