The research topic on: “The Teaching of Primary science (PR. SC)
(also know as Integrated Science (ITS) in the junior secondary Schools ITS)in
the primary schools, Problems and Prospects: A Case Study of Some Selected
Primary School in Igabi Local Government Area of Kaduna State”. The
objective/purpose is to determine how the teaching of Integrated Science has
feature in the school curriculum as the case may be. Some literature review was
made in the area of teaching science on the topic. Questionnaires were
distributed and collected from respondents, the data and information collected
were analyzed. Findings from the research showed that:
teachers should identify the prescribed strategy of teaching integrated
science; couple with the use of adequate teaching aids, inquiry
experimentation, field trips and so on.
major problem inhibiting effective teaching of integrated science is inadequate
trained teachers in the field. Therefore, there is need for urgent attention
for training and retraining for teachers in Integrated Science i.e. through
seminar and workshops and in-service training.
Integrated Science as a subject is included in the curriculum as a core subject
in all the schools sampled (prospects)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title of Research i
Approval Page ii
Table of Contents vii-viii
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 Significance of the Study 6
1.4 Delimitation 7
1.5 Definition of Terms 7
1.6 Hypothesis 8
2.0 Literature Review 10
2.1 Definition of Science 10
3.0 Research Methodology 20
3.1 The Design 20
3.2 The Sample 21
3.3 The Instrument 21
3.4 Data Collection 21
3.5 Analysis of Data 22
3.6 Validity of Instrument 22
4.1 Data Analysis 23
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The science curriculum at
any time and place is determined by the existing theories and ideas about the
nature of science. Because such theories and ideas have varied from place to
place and from time to time, even for the same place; the science curriculum
and its introduction have never remained static. Several programmes have been
set up in various parts of the world to develop science curriculum and
teaching, with an aim to suit the prevailing situation in such areas. As a result
of the changing views about science, its content and materials have been
subjected to modification in accordance with the reigning theories. In the
1960s the U.S.A, set up a programme called Science a Process Approach (S.A.PA.)
which was developed and sponsored by the America Association of the Advancement
of Science (A.A.A.S). For the A.A.A.S, science processes should precede the
contents that is to say, the programme encouraged a study of the science
procedure which would result in the child having the opportunity to develop
intellectual skills similarly there were programmes in the United Kingdom, for
example, The Nuffield Junior Science and the African Primary Science Programme
(A.P.S.P) was based in East and West African.
The relative backwardness of
primary education in the Northern states of Nigeria stimulated the
consideration by the Federal Government, the governments of the then six
northern states, and UNESCO to form a joint project which would improve the
quality of primary education (Lassa, 1977:1). Discussion resulting from such
moves were held at Zaria between the Institute of Education (A.B.U Zaria), the government
of the six Northern states UNESCO and UNESCEF. The outcome of that meeting was
the initiation of a programme called UNICEF/UNESCO programme but later became
the Primary Education Improvement Project (P.E.I.P).
In June 1970, a writing
panel made up of T.T.C. Tutors, ministry personnel and others met to decide on
writing syllable and books on science and other subjects. Decisions centred on
having a fresh science syallbus which was based mainly on units taken from the
African Primary Science Programme (A.P.S.P) but preference was made to the
Nuffield Junior Science Programme and materials for science. Later, however,
the panel decided to abandon this approach and follow the steps suggested by
the Nigerian Educational Research Council (N.E.R.C) through adopting a process
approach method similar to that of the American science. A process approach.
By December 1971, the first
book titled Primary Science One was instructions for the teaching of 26
lessons. This book centred on activities, which would provide opportunities to
practical process type skills such as observation, classification measurement,
etc. Brown, (1978:2) and these activities involved both the teacher and the
pupils. By 1972, Primary Science one was on trial in 66 piloted schools. A
panel meeting in June 1972 established the guideline for primary school three,
part of it was written by the end of the year, the whole book being completed
by June 1974. Primary science four was produce in 1978. Book four came out in
1976 and book five and six came out in the 1980.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is important while
discussing the P.E.I.P to realize as in any other programme of its dimension
there bound to many challenges which if not well met will cause the down fall
of the programme; for example there could be administrative, financial and
Integrated science or
primary science is identified as a problem approached discipline through which
man studies and learns about problems of survival in his environment. The aim
of this research is to identify problems leading to poor performance in pupils
and teachers in some selected primary schools in Igabi Local Government Area to
recommend possible solutions that can help in improving its teaching. In our
search for these problems, the following questions are asked:
1. What are the classes
that are taught primary science?
2. What is the number of
qualified integrated science teacher in your school?
3. How many of these
teachers teach integrated science?
4. What are their
5. Are the materials used
by the teachers (i.e. textbooks) suitable for both the teachers and learners?
6. Are there other
teaching aids used by the teachers apart from the textbooks?
7. What methods are used
in imparting the knowledge of integrated science to the learners?
8. Do the school provide a
special workshop for the teaching of the subject?
9. Is there current and
recommended approved primary science syllabus in the school?
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research is aimed at
the causes of poor performance in primary science in our primary schools today.
Thereby giving necessary suggestions and practical ways by which the
instruction can be improved so that its set goals and objectives can be
achieved. The researchers decided to choose:
School Jaji i.e. child friendly
Army Children’s School Jaji
School Birni Yaro Tasha
School Tudun Wada Rigachikun
For sample studies with
the believe to the researchers that this will be of immense help to the
integrated science teachers in the classroom and also to the educational
This research work
concentrated on four (4) primary schools in Igabi Local Government and its
Primary School Jaji –
2. Army Children’s School Jaji
Primary School Birni Yaro
Primary School Tudun Wada
Considering all the
problems faced in teaching integrated science, it would require a wide and more
detailed research and bigger book than this. Thus, the application of the
evidence found is not to be generalized with other schools in the state but
restricted to primary schools in Igabi Local Government Area only.
i) Integrated Science: A
jointed knowledge that is based on testing and providing facts.
ii) Primary Schools: Schools in
which children receive formal education before going to secondary school.
iii) Teaching: Passing knowledge
to somebody with some guided activities.
iv) Curriculum: Course content
design for the learner.
v) S.A.P.A: Science – A Process
vi) A.P.S.P: Africa
Primary Science Programme.
vii) A.I.E.P: Primary
Education Improvement Project.
viii) Teaching Aids:
Materials use in aiding teaching and learning.
Integrated Workshop: A special room exclusively meant for teaching
Hypothesis have been advanced to guide the study:
1. That there was language
problems, that is, the science terminologies cannot be easily translated into
2. That there are no enough
trained teachers for this discipline Integrated Science.
3. That there are inadequate
teaching aids for the teaching of the subject.
4. It was assumed that the same
ministry is concerned with the running of the schools in terms of personnel
enrolment and retention funds and other facilities.
5. There is still a problem in
teaching controversial topics.