TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE - - i
CERTIFICATION - - ii
DEDICATION - - iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS - - iv
ABSTRACT - - viii
to the Study - - 1
of the Problem - - 7
Questions - - 8
Hypotheses - - 10
the Study - - 11
of the Study - - 12
of the Study - - 13
the Study/Delimitation - 13
of the Study - - 14
Definitions - - 14
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW
OF RELATED LITERATURE
method in the Teaching of Social Studies 17
Background of Mastery Learning 29
of Mastery Learning 32
Studies on Mastery Learning 44
Evidence on Gender and Academic Achievement 56
level and its Influence on Learners’
Academic Achievement 61
Review of Literature 62
Design - - 65
of the Study - - 66
Sampling Procedure - - 66
for Data Collection - - 67
of the Instrument - - 68
of the Instrument - - 68
Data Collection - - 68
Data Analysis - - 69
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA
ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
One - - 70
Two - - 71
Three - - 73
Four - - 74
Five - - 75
Six - - 76
Seven - - 77
of Results - - 78
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND
Summary - - 81
Conclusion - - 84
Recommendations - - 86
for Further Research - - 88
of this Study to Knowledge - 89
REFERENCES - - 91
APPENDICES - -
1. Table of Specification for 40 Items in Social Studies 102
2. Pre-Test on
Social Studies Achievement Test 103
3. Post-Test on Social Studies Achievement Test 107
4. Course Outline 112
The quest for the effective methods
of teaching social studies in Nigerian schools is a continuous one. This research is designed to investigate the
effects of Integrated Group Based Mastery Learning Model on social studies
students’ achievement in junior secondary schools in Benin City. The problem of students’ poor performance and
underachievement in social studies has been a major issue of concern and
interest in the Nigerian educational sector.
Seven research questions and seven corresponding hypotheses
were raised to guide the study. A quasi-experimental design of non-equivalent
control group was adopted. Two mixed
secondary schools were purposively selected from Benin City out of which, two
in-tact classes were selected. One of
the two classes was used as the experimental group, taught with integrated
group based mastery learning model and the other as control group, taught with
the traditional/expository instructional model.
There were 100 students in the two groups combined. The instrument used for the data collection
was the Social Studies Achievement Test (SSAT).
The data collected were analyzed using t-test of independent sample for
hypotheses one, two, three and four.
Hypotheses five and six were tested using one-way ANOVA, while
hypothesis seven was tested using two-way ANOVA. The hypotheses were tested at .05 level of
The result of the study showed that there was a significant
effect of treatment on social studies students’ achievement. This means that the integrated group based
mastery learning model was more effective than the traditional expository
method. The result of the study also
showed that initial ability level did not have any significant influence on the
effect of ML on students’ achievement in social studies. It was concluded that students’ achievement
in social studies is more likely to improve if more teachers employ the mastery
learning. It is recommended that social studies teachers should be encouraged
through in-service training, seminars or other forms of on-the-job training to
employ mastery learning models. Also,
teacher-education in the universities and colleges of education should
intensify the teaching of skills related to the application of mastery learning
Background to the Study
recent socio- political and economic changes in the world and within nations
have brought about changes in educational goals and greater challenges for
social studies. The schools are called
not only to equip the learner with basic knowledge of social studies content
but also with higher cognitive skills, such as problem solving and thinking
skills that allow for self-development and continuous learning. To meet up with these challenges, there is a
movement away from the behaviourist method of direct teaching such as in the
lecture method, note copying and dictations, where the learner is given
contents to memorize and regurgitate.
Social Studies as a discipline continues to enjoy
changes in educational objectives. In
the 20th century, History, Economics, Government and Geography were
taught as separate subjects with a listed series of facts to be memorised. With
changes in educational outcomes students’ learning had to be reconsidered and
taught as integrated discipline.
Emphasis is now shifted from learning as acquisition of facts to
learning as utilization of facts; from learning as memorization (from Geography
and History texts), to learning as a process of discovering important
relationships and principles inductively; from learning for learning sake to
learning as a way of inquiring and thinking according to the processes of the
Social Sciences. This can only be achieved through the process of mastery
learning strategy (Onibokun, 1999).
studies as a subject is of a fairly recent origin throughout the world. The
concept of social studies was first developed in USA in 1916 by the committee on
social studies of the commission on the reorganization of secondary education
of the National Education Association (Jarolimek 1977). Later in I930s social
studies was introduced into Europe especially in Great Britain due to unprecedented
enthusiasm to reform the conventional curriculum to meet up with the demands of
the society. From 1950 to 1956, the subject had spread to many African
Countries. The new independent nations of Africa
were faced with how to re-order their national policies to enable them perform
their expected roles as independent nations within the world community of
nations. The development of social studies in secondary schools in Nigeria gained
momentum from the year 1977 after the introduction of National Policy on
Education popularly known as the 6-3-3-4 system. This rapid progress was caused
by two major factors. The first was that the Universal Primary Education (UPE)
introduced in 1976 made social studies the only social science subject to be
taught in the primary schools. The second factor was that social studies was
made a core subject for the junior secondary school. This has brought a lot of
awareness to the students and the teachers on the significant roles of social
studies especially as it affects the implementation of 6-3-3-4 system of
order to implement the national policy on education, government at all levels became
more interested in the schooling process in terms of educational outcomes, learning
activities, instructional resources, instructional strategies and evaluation
procedures. In view of this, emphasis has been on the need to:
educational activities centre on the learner for maximum self-development and
the educational system to develop the practice of self -learning (FRN, 2004).
The implication of these for classroom teachers is that, they should develop a
teaching approach which encourages the learners to participate in the learning
the efforts of Government in restructuring the educational system to develop
the practice of self-learning, the dominant approach to instruction in schools
has been the expository type especially since the inception of western
education in Nigeria in 1843. Other methods of instruction were later
introduced into the learning processes. For instance, since 1960, curriculum
planners have emphasized the inquiry approach by claiming that carrying out
investigations is the most promising method by which students will master
inquiry skills and become literate in social studies (Schwab, 1963; Yager &
Lutz, 1994). Even at that, it cannot be said that schools have done well in
developing such skills in the learners.
Quite a number of studies have been conducted to investigate
the causes of students’ under achievement in Junior Secondary Social Studies
(Onasanya, 1985; Ogbu, 1993; Iroegbu, 1998; Adegbite, 1999; Adepoju, 1999) and
the most reoccurring factor in all is the inadequate teaching method used by
Social Studies teachers.
learners’ individual needs, preferences and interest cannot be met by most
strategies utilized in the traditional, expository method of teaching. This is one of the reasons the researcher is
interested in trying out other method such as mastery learning strategy. If the
objectives of Social Studies education are to be met, then the need to look for
an alternative teaching paradigm in the form of an improved and effective
teaching strategy that is result oriented becomes necessary.
Studies as a school subject introduced by the Federal Government was to help
students acquire basic social knowledge, positive attitudes, values and social
skills needed to make the students functional and responsible citizens and
contributing members of the society. It provides knowledge, skills and attitude
that enable learners understand their physical and social environment in order
to act or behave as responsible citizens. It prepares students to live in a
global and culturally diverse world, as well as keep pace with rapid development
in electronically and technologically changing world, (Martorella, 1996). It
involves person with group and group with group. It is a study of man’s
relationship with his environment, how environment affects man and how man in
turn influences his environment.
The teaching of social studies is therefore an
activity that involves both the teacher and the learner. The purpose of teaching is to ensure that
learning takes place. While learning involves a behavioural change in the
learner, social studies teaching involves the transmission of the relevant body
of knowledge, attitudes, manner, dispositions, skills and values that enable
the individual to survive in a growing and dynamic society.
Adeyemi (2007) defines teaching of social studies as a
process of facilitating student learning through a proper management by the
teacher of the inter-relationships among the students’ interest, the content
for learning and the methods and materials he or she intends to use in the
teaching and learning of the content materials. It may involve giving
instruction to somebody on knowledge, skills and attitudes with the intention
that the person will be able to know the information or to do something or act
in a particular way that is compatible with the instruction. We know that the person the instruction is
given to may be a learner, a pupil, a student or a trainee. The means employed by the teacher to pass
information to the learner would determine ultimately, if he or she is
to Lynn, Douglas and Gerald (2009), Mastery Learning is an instructional
process that provides students with multiple opportunities to demonstrate
content mastery. Initial instruction is
presented at a fast pace to engage all learners. Students who do not demonstrate mastery are
given additional instruction specifically designed to correct their
misunderstandings. Re-teaching should
involve strategies that are different from the original instructional methods. For example, if the original material was
presented in a lecture format with visuals, the re-teaching process might
involve hands-on activities and cooperative learning strategies. A retest is later given to these students to
allow them to demonstrate mastery.
The teacher must be an effective communicator who
thoroughly processes his information of social studies content and presents it
in an orderly and comprehensive manner. There must be an established feedback
mechanism so as to enable correction of lapses in instructional methods which
can thus bring about improvement in the teaching and learning of Social
to instruct for mastery the following guideline are to be followed:
state the objectives representing the purpose of the subject
curriculum is divided into relatively small learning units, each with
modelling, practice, formative evaluation; re-teaching, reinforcement, and
summative evaluation included.
unit is preceded by brief diagnostic tests, formative assessments.
results of formative tests are used to provide supplementary instruction, or
corrective activities to help the learner overcome problems.
Statement of the Problem
The problems of student’s poor
performance and under-achievement in social studies have been major issues of
concern and interest in the Nigerian educational sector. The need for intervention is not only
recognized but also acknowledged by all stakeholders. Quite a number of studies earlier cited
provide enough evidence on the poor performance of students in social studies
teaching. This problem has been
approached from many angles by researchers.
The place of instructional methods employed by teachers has been
acknowledged to be a major factor in student’s achievement. In spite of the need for innovative approach
to social studies teaching, the expository instructional approach continues to
dominate the teaching of social studies in Nigerian schools as revealed in literature. The approach emphasizes academic,
intellectual and cognitive aspect of teaching social studies. This method to a large extent neglects human,
cultural, social and affective dimensions of social studies. Consequently, learners individual needs,
preferences and interest cannot be met by such strategies utilized in the
traditional expository method of teaching.
This has continued to attract criticisms and as a result, researchers
have continued to stress the need for learner-centred methods, one of which is
the Mastery Learning Models. Is this instructional approach not likely to
enhance students’ achievement in social studies?
The following research questions were
raised to guide the study:
there be a difference in the achievement of social studies students taught
using the integrated group based mastery learning models and those taught using
the traditional method?
there be a difference in the retention of learning among social studies
students taught using the integrated group based mastery learning models and
those taught using the traditional method?
there be a difference in achievement between male and female students taught using
the integrated group based mastery learning models?
there be a difference in the learning retention of male and female students taught
using the integrated group based mastery learning models?
there be a difference in the achievement of students exposed to integrated
group based mastery learning model by ability level?
there be a difference in the learning retention of students taught using integrated
group based mastery learning model by ability level?
there be interaction effect of gender and ability level on students’
achievement in social studies?
The following null hypotheses were formulated
to give the study a direction:
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the achievement
of social studies students taught using the integrated group based mastery
learning models and those taught using the traditional method.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the learning
retention among social studies students taught using the integrated group based
mastery learning models and those taught using the traditional method.
Ho3: There is no significant difference in the achievement
between social studies male and female students taught using the integrated
group based mastery learning model.
Ho4: There is no significant difference in the
retention of learning between social studies male and female students taught
using the integrated group based mastery learning model.
Ho5: There is no significant difference in the
achievement of social studies students exposed to mastery learning models by ability
Ho6: There is no significant difference in the
learning retention of social studies students taught using the integrated group
based mastery learning models by ability level.
Ho7: There is no significant difference between
gender and ability level on social studies students achievement in social
Purpose of the Study
purpose of this study is to assess the relative effectiveness of integrated
group based mastery learning models on students’ achievement in social studies
at the JSS level. The study is
specifically aimed at the following objectives:
1) To investigate the effect of integrated group based mastery
learning models on the enhancement of students’ achievement in social studies
2) To investigate the effect of integrated group based mastery
learning model on the enhancement of retention among social studies students.
3) To investigate if there will be a gender difference on the use
of integrated group based mastery learning models in social studies achievement.
4) To investigate if there will be a gender difference on the effect
of integrated group based mastery learning models on students’ learning retention
in social studies.
5) To investigate if there will be an ability difference on the effect
of integrated group based mastery learning models on social studies achievement.
6) To investigate if there will be an ability difference on the effect
of integrated group based mastery learning model on learning retention in
7) To investigate if there will be difference between gender and
ability on the effect of integrated group based mastery learning models in
social studies achievement.
Significance of the Study
The study will be significant in many
ways and to many groups. These include curriculum experts in making adjustment
and improvement on the teaching methodology of social studies. If curriculum
designers are to continue to provide adequate and relevant social studies
curriculum, there is need for a relevant database concerning instructional
procedures at the Junior Secondary schools.
The teachers would want to know the best instructional procedures for
different groups of learners and learning situations rather than trial and error
The findings of the study will open
avenue for research on related themes as materials and methodology from other
researchers become available. Also some
of the existing gaps in the knowledge of methods of instruction in social
studies may be filled.
The study will develop in the children
the importance of inquiry which will lead to the development of problem
solving, reflective and critical thinking, which are the skills required in
addressing most anti-social issues of concern in their environment. This will in turn help in solving most of the
problems in our society.
Assumptions of the Study
The study was based on the assumption
that achievement in social studies depends on the effectiveness of the
integrated models of mastery learning which basically is to enable students to show
certain skills and attitude in the use of concepts that describe honesty,
discipline, obedience, orderliness, discipline, diligence.
Scope/Delimitation of the
The scope of this study revolves
around determining the relative effectiveness of integrated mastery learning
models on students’ learning outcome in social studies in JSS II. The study was
restricted to all public Junior Secondary School two (JSS II) students in Egor
Local Government Area of Edo State.
Limitations of the Study
The limitations of this study include
those that are often attributed to quasi-experimental studies generally.
In-tact classes were used in this study as school authorities would not agree
to random selection of students and their assignment to treatment. It is therefore a quasi-experimental
study. The other limitation of the study
was that some of the students did not submit their papers after the test.
Mastery learning: is an instructional model
that presumes all children can learn if they are provided with the appropriate
Learning ability: is
the rate at which an individual can learn and comprehend fact.
Retention of learning: is
the knowledge acquired by learners which they are able to show after an
Teaching Strategy: is
a set of unique activities, which a teacher employs to implement.
Teaching Method: is an approach or a procedure which a teacher
adopt to explain a subject matter to learner.
Integrated Group based Mastery Learning
Model: is a combination of the theories of Bloom’s and Keller’s
model of instruction. It involves the direct application of Bloom’s and
Keller’s model to the teaching and learning of social studies in order to
enhance students’ achievement in the subject.