study was intended to examine the historical development of
artificial intelligence. This study was guided by the
following objectives; To find out the application and
benefits of artificial intelligence to mankind, To ascertain the prospects of
artificial intelligence. The study employed the survey research
design; questionnaires in addition to library research were applied in order to
collect data. Primary and secondary data sources were used and data was
analyzed using the chi-square
statistical tool at 5% level of significance which was presented in frequency
tables and percentage. The respondents under the study were 100 respondents from the entire population
of Lagos residents. The study findings revealed that
artificial intelligence benefits the human race. Artificial intelligence has made
life easier for man. Artificial intelligence has more merits than demerits.
Artificial intelligence has developed or evolved overtime. dev. in Nigeria is
majorly as a result of artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence has
helped to increase Nigeria’s productivity and output. lack of adequate
artificial intelligence may adversely affect the nation’s economy.
The outcome of this research work will therefore be of great help
to stakeholders in various sectors for example health, finance, education,
security, engineering, manufacturing, research and technology in understanding
the application and benefits of Artificial intelligence to enhance productivity
and effectiveness of the sectors.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE
According to wikipedia (2015), artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence
exhibited by machines or software. It is also the name of the academic field of
study in computer science which studies how to create computers and computer
software that are capable of intelligent behavior. Major artificial
intelligence researchers and other sources define this field as the study and
design of intelligent agents, in which an intelligent agent is a system that
perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success.
John McCarthy, who coined the term as far back as 1955, defines it as the
science and engineering of making intelligent machines.
Artificial intelligence is a branch of Computer Science
concerned with the study and creation of computer systems. Artificial
intelligence exhibits some form of intelligence by way of introducing systems
that learn new concepts and tasks and also have the ability to reason and draw
useful conclusions about the world. Artificial intelligence systems also can
understand a natural language or perceive and comprehend a visual scene, and
perform other types of feats that require human types of intelligence (Freitas,
Artificial intelligence research is highly technical and
specialized, and is deeply divided into subfields that often fail to
communicate with each other. Some of the division is due to social and cultural
factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of
individual researchers (Drexler, 1986). Artificial intelligence research is also
divided by several technical issues. Some subfields focus on the solution of
specific problems. Others focus on one of several possible approaches or on the
use of a particular tool or towards the accomplishment of particular
applications. The central problems (or goals) of artificial intelligence
research include reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language
processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate
objects. General intelligence is still among the field's long-term goals
(Bostrom, 2002). Currently popular approaches include statistical methods,
computational intelligence and traditional symbolic artificial intelligence.
There are a large number of tools used in artificial intelligence, including
versions of search and mathematical optimization, logic, methods based on
probability and economics, and many others. The artificial intelligence field
is interdisciplinary, in which a number of sciences and professions converge,
including computer science, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy
and neuroscience, as well as other specialized fields such as artificial
psychology (Hanson, 1998).
According to Moravec, (1999), the field was founded on the claim
that a central property of humans, intelligence can be so precisely described
that a machine can be made to simulate it. This raises philosophical issues
about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings
endowed with human-like intelligence, issues which have been addressed by myth,
fiction and philosophy since antiquity (Kurzweil, 1999). Artificial
intelligence has been the subject of tremendous optimism but has also suffered
stunning setbacks. Today it has become an essential part of the technology
industry, providing the heavy lifting for many of the most challenging problems
in computer science (Yudkowsky, 2003).
Artificial intelligence also deals with study of ideas to bring
into being machines that respond to stimulation consistent with
traditional responses from humans, given the human capacity for contemplation,
judgment and intention (Vinge, 1993). Each such machine should engage in
critical appraisal and selection of differing opinions within itself. Produced
by human skill and labor, these machines should conduct themselves in agreement
with life, spirit and sensitivity, though in reality, they are imitations.
Other researcher has seen artificial intelligence as systems that combine
sophisticated hardware and software with elaborate databases and
knowledge-based processing models to demonstrate characteristics of effective
human decision making. However, the researcher will provide an indebt study
into the introduction to artificial intelligence and its application and
benefit to human being
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
It is a known fact that the field of artificial intelligence is relatively
young (Yudkowsky, 2002). The creation of Artificial Intelligence as an academic
discipline can be traced to the 1950s, when scientists and researchers began to
consider the possibility of machines processing intellectual capabilities
similar to those of human beings. Alan Turing, a British mathematician, first
proposed a test to determine whether or not a machine is intelligent. The test
later became known as the Turing Test, in which a machine tries to disguise
itself as a human being in an imitation game by giving human-like responses to
a series of questions. Turing believed that if a machine could make a human
being believe that he or she is communicating with another human being, then
the machine can be considered (Bostrom, 2002). However, artificial intelligence
has been used in a wide range of fields including medical diagnosis, stock
trading, robot control, law, remote sensing, scientific discovery and toys.
However, many Artificial intelligence applications are not perceived as
artificial intelligence (Bostrom, 2002). A lot of cutting edge artificial
intelligence has filtered into general applications, often without being called
artificial intelligence because once something becomes useful enough and common
enough it's not labeled artificial intelligence anymore," Nick Bostrom
reports. "Many thousands of artificial intelligence applications are
deeply embedded in the infrastructure of every industry. In the late 90s and early
21st century, Artificial intelligence technology became widely used as elements
of larger systems, but the field is rarely credited for these successes. For
example; finance, hospitals and medicines, heavy industries, online and
telephone customer service, transportation, telecommunication, toys and games,
music, aviation, news, publishing & writing. However, this study seeks
to provide an overview of artificial intelligence, its application and use to
human being in general (Bostrom, 2002).
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
To examine the historical development
of artificial intelligence.
To find out the application and
benefits of artificial intelligence to mankind.
To ascertain the prospects of
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
How was artificial intelligence
What are the application and benefits
of artificial intelligence to mankind?
What are the prospects of artificial
HO: Artificial intelligence does not benefit human life in any way
HA: Artificial intelligence does not benefit human life in any way
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This research will be of significance in the following area:
It will be of help to stakeholders in
various sectors for example health, finance, education, security, engineering,
manufacturing, research and technology in understanding the application and
benefits of Artificial intelligence to enhance productivity and effectiveness
of the sectors.
The findings of this research work
will also serve as reference for academic endeavor to lecturers and students
and also help the public who would want to know about some advantages and
disadvantages (if any) of the use of the artificial intelligence.
Findings and recommendations from
this study will guide the stakeholders in various sector determine the type
artificial intelligence to be adopted and also help them identify specific
areas where artificial intelligence can be applied.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
This study on application and benefits of artificial intelligence will cover
the overview of the historical development of artificial intelligence as a
branch of computer science that deals with creating computers and computer
software that are capable of intelligent behavior. However, this study will
examine the application and benefits of the Artificial intelligence to human
life and this research will also consider the future and prospects of
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
In this research work, the terms defined reflect how the researcher wants them
to be understood in the context of this work
Behaviour- the way in which one acts or conducts oneself, especially towards
Artificial- made or produced by human beings rather than occurring naturally,
especially as a copy of something natural.
Computer- an electronic device which is capable of receiving information (data)
in a particular form and of performing a sequence of operations in accordance
with a predetermined but variable set of procedural instructions (program) to
produce a result in the form of information or signals.
Intelligence - the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills.
Innovation- The process of translating an idea or invention into a good or
service that creates value
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Scenarios and Related Hazards." Journal of Evolution and
Drexler, K. E. (1986): Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of
Nanotechnology. (Anchor Books: New York, 1986). http://www.foresight.org/EOC/index.html
Freitas Jr., R. A. (1999): Nanomedicine, Volume 1: Basic Capabilities.
(Landes Bioscience: Georgetown, TX, 1999). http://www.nanomedicine.com
Hanson, R., et al. (1998). "A Critical Discussion of Vinge's Singularity
Concept." Extropy Online.http://www.extropy.org/eo/articles/vi.html
Kurzweil, R. (1999): The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers
Exceed Human Intelligence. (Viking: New York, 1999).
Moravec, H. (1999): Robot: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind.
(Oxford University Press: New York, 1999).
Vinge, V. (1993). "The Coming Technological Singularity." Whole
Earth Review, Winter issue.
Wikipedia, 2015: www.wikipedia.com
Yudkowsky, E. (2002). "The AI Box Experiment." Webpage.http://sysopmind.com/essays/aibox.html
(2003). Creating Friendly AI 1.0. http://www.singinst.org/CFAI/index.html