COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOURCES OF WATER AND WATER BORNE DISEASES

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOURCES OF WATER AND WATER BORNE DISEASES

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY.

Water is one of the most abundant and essential resources of man, and occupies about 70% of earth‟s surface. About 97% of this volume of earth‟s surface water is contained in the oceans, 21% in polar ice and glaciers, 0.3-0.8% underground, 0.009% in inland freshwaters such as lakes, while 0.00009% is contained in rivers (Eja, 2002). According to Botkin and Keller (1998), more than 97% of earth‟s water is in the oceans and ice caps, and glaciers account for another 2%. Also, the ocean comprises 97%, while 3% of the earth‟s water is fresh (Kulshneshtha, 1998). Water in its pure state is acclaimed key to health and the general contention is that water is more basic than all other essential things to life (Edungbola and Asaolu, 1984). Man requires a regular and accessible supply of water which forms a major component of the protoplasm and provides an essential requirement for vital physiological and biochemical processes. Man can go without food for twenty eight days, but only three days without water, and two third of a person‟s water consumption per day is through food while one third is obtained through drinking (Muyi, 2007).

Surface waters in streams or pools and stored waters in lakes and large ponds vary considerably in microbial content. (frazier 1978) water is broadly divided into three types viz., surface water which include: streams, rivers, lakes  sear, and oceans Kelman et al (1957). The generality of bacteria are mostly commonly found ordinarily in fresh water some of which include:  pseudomonas, Archacbacter, and vibrio these are gram negative, the gram-positive bacterial which are found in water include: micrococcus Archacbacter and actinomycentes. Gebharal (1975)  Tap water, as one of the water sources is mostly used domestically, it is observed that tap change sometime the water tap will be clear this calls for load, in order to be sure of its portability. Bonde (1977). The increase in drinking water from different sources especially in Enugu state has made necessary to investigate the microbial content of water. Water is a potential carrier of pathogenic organisms that can endanger human life. Most of drinking water sources are often contaminated with different pollutants like faces, animal and plant wastes, making such water  unfit for drinking if not treated. The pollution of water with pathogenic organisms and other pollutants can only be detected by carrying out microbiological assessment of such water. Most human disease such as typhoid paratyphoid cholera, emboebiasis, Trichinosis, gastroenteritis, sanonall shigellosis, diphtheria, giadia, dracunculus etc are know to be water borne disease. Ewington et al (1971).

Water borne diseases are those disease which have water as their vehicle of transmission these disease are capable of destroying a whole community if not checked. Therefore, the quickest ways to prevent out break of these disease and to determine the portability of such water sources is to determine the microbial load or content if the microbial content is nor within acceptable limit, such  water sources should be condemned immediately, Fair et al (1970).

Water plays essential roles in supporting human life. It also has if contaminated great potential for transmitting a wide variety of diseases and illness. In the developed world, water related diseases are rare, due essentially to the presence of efficient water supply and waste water disposal systems. However, in the developing world perhaps a lot of people are without safe water supply and adequate sanitation (Tebbut, 1983). As a result, the toll of water-related diseases in these areas is frightening in its extent. In the developed world, there is a concern about the possible long term health hazards which may arise from the presence of trace concentration of impurities in drinking water, particularly attention being paid to potentially carcinogenic compounds. There are also several contaminants which may be naturally occurring or man-made, having known effects on the health of consumers. It is therefore important that the relationship between water quality and health be fully appreciated by the engineers and scientist, concerned with water quality control (Tebbut, 1983).

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.

The significance of water route in spread of diseases varies both with the diseases and the local circumstance (Adesiyn et al, 1983). Wolf (2001) added that harmful chemicals such as pesticides from agriculture and heavy metals like lead and mercury from industries can build up in the food chain where they can reach toxic levels in fish and other sea animals. The effects of water pollution by chemicals include cancer, arthritis, skin irritation and eruption, heart diseases, central nervous system problems, skin rashes, kidney problems and bronchitis. The principal microbial water borne diseases are typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (salmonellosis), cholera, bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), infectious hepatitis, dracontiasis and schistosomiasis (Udoessien, 2003). Others are food poisoning, amoebic dysentery, giardiasis, gastro enteritis, hepatitis A and poliomyelitis.

Therefore, there is need to research different sources of water, how to maintain safe water for drinking and different water borne diseases, causes, prevention and treatment.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY.

The main objective of the study is to analyse different sources of water and water borne diseases.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.

What is the definition of water?

What are different sources of water?

What are water borne diseases?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.

This study will help in analysing different sources of water, in order to identify the safest for ingestion.

This study will help in analysing different waterborne diseases prevention, treatment and management.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY.

This study focus on the comparative analysis of different sources of water and water borne diseases.

REFERENCES.

Adesiyun, A. A., Adekeye, J. O., Umoh, J. U. and Nadarajah, M. (1983). Studies on Well Water and Possible Health Risks in Katsina. Journal of Hygiene. 90:1999-201.

Adesiyun, A. A., Alayande, A. and Adekeye, J. (1999). Studies on Borehole Water and Possible Risks in Kaduna. Nigeria Journal of Hygiene. 96:149-160.

Botkin, D. B. and Keller, E. A. (1998). Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. New York. (2nd edition) John Wiley & Sons Inc. pp. 472-476.

Edungbola, L. D. and Asaolu, S. O. (1984). A Parasitological Survey: Onchocerciasis in Babana District of Kwara State, Nigeria. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene. 33(999): 1147-1154.

Eja, M. E. (2002). Water Pollution and Sanitation for Developing Countries. Calabar, Seaprint (Nig) Co. pp. 9-10.

Ekeh, I. B. and Sikoki, F. (2003). The State and Seasonal Variability in Some Physiochemical Parameters of the new Calabar River, Nigeria. Suplementa and Acta Hydrobiologica. 5:45-60.

Kulshreshtha, S. N. (1998). A Global Outlook for Water Resources to the Year 2005. Water Resources Management. 12(3): 167-184

Muyi, T. D. (2007). Water and the Body. Daily Sun. Tuesday, August 7, 2007 edition p. 3.

Tebbut, T. H. Y. (1983). Principles of Water Quality Control. Frankfort (3rd edition). Pergamon Press. p. 214.

Udoessien, E. I. (2003). Basic Principles of Environmental Science. Uyo. Etiliew International Publishers. pp. 77-110.

Wolf, A. T. (2001). Water and Human Security. Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education. 29:118.

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOURCES OF WATER AND WATER BORNE DISEASES

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Water is one of the most abundant and essential resources of man, and occupies about 70% of earth‟s surface. About 97% of this volume of earth‟s surface water is contained in the oceans, 21% in polar ice and glaciers, 0.3-0.8% underground, 0.009% in inland freshwaters such as lakes, while 0.00009% is contained in rivers (Eja, 2002). According to Botkin and Keller (1998), more than 97% of earth‟s water is in the oceans and ice caps, and glaciers account for another 2%. Also, the ocean comprises 97%, while 3% of the earth‟s water is fresh (Kulshneshtha, 1998). Water in its pure state is acclaimed key to health and the general contention is that water is more basic than all other essential things to life (Edungbola and Asaolu, 1984). Man requires a regular and accessible supply of water which forms a major component of the protoplasm and provides an essential requirement for vital physiological and biochemical processes. Man can go without food for twenty eight days, but only three days without water, and two third of a person‟s water consumption per day is through food while one third is obtained through drinking (Muyi, 2007)... health and kinetics project topics

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOURCES OF WATER AND WATER BORNE DISEASES

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  • TYPE : PROJECT MATERIAL
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  • PAGES : 56 Pages
  • CHAPTERS : 1 - 5
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