1.1 Background to the Study
Integrated, comprehensive and strategic
school health programs have greater potential to achieve good results.1
In 1980, World Health Organization (WHO) orientation toward developing
healthy structures instead of focusing only on individual behaviors
founded a comprehensive approach for the health promotion activities.2,3
The Health Promoting Schools’ (HPS) initiative was implemented in 1995
by collaboration of the health promotion, education and communication
sectors, the intra-sectorial school health working group, and the
regional office of WHO.4 This initiative highlights capacity development
and encouragement of participation, for health which all have been
accepted as powerful prerequisites to promote health and empowerment in
schools.2,3 HPS addresses the relationship between health and education
which is clearly reflected in the Health for All and Education for All
goals of the United Nations and also in the social model of health which
was corner stone of the Ottawa Charter.4,5 Attention and application of
the principles of the Ottawa Charter in schools and the focus has been
put on the development of health promotion structures led to the
establishment of HPS.2,6
In Iran, with a population of about 75
million and a total of 13 million students, the initiative was first
practiced in 2007. A joint agreement between the Ministry of Health and
Medical Education (MOHME) and Ministry of Education (MOE) was signed and
led to establishment of School Health Management System and also
Schools’ Ranking Plan to support and monitor local HPS programs that are
exploited within the network of the country’s schools.5 The HPS
initiative was first exercised as a pilot program in East Azerbaijan
Province at 36 schools in 2009-2010 and later it was expanded to 700
schools in 2011-2012.
HPS has been developed by WHO over the
last decade and is being implemented globally.2 Studies on the
experiences of participating countries in the HPS have resulted to
varying results and challenges. The most important identified challenges
were the mobilization of human resources and facilities to implement
the initiative, inclusion of societies as whole identities, policy
makers, public, private and non-governmental sectors and, also students,
their parents and teachers.7 In the first meeting of the Caribbean HPS
Network, the main obstacles to attain HPS aims were defined as the lack
of continuous funding, insufficient and unstable governmental support,
inappropriate development of HPS national networks, limited involvement,
and restricted access to education and continuing education.8 The need
to strengthen collaboration between the education and health sectors,
technical support, and insufficient funding were among the major
challenges listed by the European HPS Network.9 Leiger et al. (2001)
referred to the insufficient preparedness of teachers and educational
institutions in terms of health issues, shortage of time and resources,
and weakness of facilities as the greatest barriers to achieve HPS
goals.10 In the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO), HPS member
countries addressed the insufficient funding and technical expertise,
lack of awareness among the political leaders about the program, and
also lack of infrastructures as key issues.11 HPS has now been adopted
in all EMRO countries, except for Afghanistan and Libya and through
using different methods many local networks have been established during
the past decade.2,11 In Bahrain, HPS is organized by a committee
comprising representatives from WHO and the Ministry of Health. In
Jordan, the committee comprises representatives from the Ministry of
Health and Education and is directed by the School Health
Director-General of the Ministry of Health. Authorities in Lebanon
sought help from private and governmental sectors and international
organizations to implement the program.11
1.2 Problem Statement
Despite the importance of student health
and school hygiene as an aspect of the infrastructure of community
health, few feasibility studies have been conducted on school health
programs in developing countries such as Nigeria. This study examined
possible barriers to and challenges of such programs among secondary
school teachers in Orumba North Local Government.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The major objective to the study is to
evaluate the barriers to effective school health program among secondary
school teachers in Orumba North Local Government.
1.4 Research Questions
(1) what is health programs?
(2) what are its advantages?
(3) what are the factors affecting its effectiveness in Secondary school?
1.5 Significance of the study
The study will give a clear insight into
the barriers to effective school health programme among secondary
school teachers.There is however, insufficient evidence about the
achievements of the plan and to the best of our knowledge this study
will be the first systematic attempt to investigate pros and cons of the
executed program to identify potential barriers and challenges school
health programme have encountered in Orumba North local Government.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The research focuses on the barriers to
effective school health programme among secondary school teachers in
Orumba North Local Government.
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