Laboratory testing to identify HIV
infection has been used throughout the world for over 20 years, and
continues to be a major intervention in protecting recipients of blood
and tissues (Constantine et al., 2005). Serological screening of donor
blood for HIV antibodies remains a critical component in identifying and
eliminating HIV infected blood donations (Nkengasong et al., 1999) but,
this test rarely detect HIV antigen positive blood donors who are in
the window period.
Detection of this early viraemic stage
continues to be a challenge in transfusion medicine worldwide because of
the possibility of transmitting HIV infection (Polywka et al., 2005).
Many countries employ stringent blood donor selection criteria to defer
potentially infectious donors with high risk of HIV infection and employ
highly sensitive screening methods like Nucleic Acid Amplification
Testing (NAAT) in a nationally coordinated Blood Transfusion Service.
Following this approach, developed countries like the United States of
America (USA), United Kingdom (UK) and France have successfully reduced
infections through their blood supplies and the window period from an
average of 22 days based on antibody ELISA to 11days using NAAT (Busch
et al., 2003). In Africa where about 5 to 10% of cases of HIV are
reported to have been acquired through blood transfusion (WHO, 2002),
the use of sensitive testing assays has persistently posed a daunting
challenge for most nations.
In Nigeria, the national prevalence of
HIV among blood donors was reported to be 4.4% (PEPFAR, 2006) though,
different researchers (Irene, 2002; Durosinmi et al., 2003; Imoru et
al., 2003; Ejele et al., 2005) have reported varying prevalence from
different parts of Nigeria depending on the setting, nature of blood
donation, population prevalence, donor selection criteria and methods of
assays employed in testing. Pre-transfusion screening of blood is aimed
at reducing to the barest minimum the acquisition of transfusion
transmissible infections like HIV through donated blood. Facilities for
early detection of infection with newer technologies in asymptomatic
carriers thereby narrowing the window period are not available in the
study setting. Screening of blood donors rely on available
antibody-based detection method for HIV infection. Local data from this
centre on the percentage of post transfusion acquired HIV infection are
lacking as far as the authors are aware.
1.2 Problem Statement
Detection of the early viraemic stage of
HIV continues to be a challenge in transfusion medicine worldwide
because of the possibility of transmitting HIV infection. Serelogical
screening of donor blood for HIV antibodies remains a critical component
of identifying and eliminating HIV infected blood donations but this
test rarely detect HIV antigen positive blood donors who are in the
window period. Hence there is need to assess the prevalence of HIV/AIDS
among intending donors.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The major objective of the study is the prevalence of HIV/AIDS among intending donors.
1.4 Research Questions
(1) what is HIV/AIDS?
(2) what are its mode of transmission?
(3) what is its prevalence in the population?
(4) why the need to know its prevalence among intending donors?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study gives a clear insight into
the prevalence of HIV/AIDS among intending donors. It also serves part
of a preliminary study to identify intending blood donors that are
medically fit to donate blood.
1.6 Scope of the study
The research focuses on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS among intending donors.
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