PREVALENCE OF HIV/AIDS AMONG INTENDING DONORS

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PREVALENCE OF HIV/AIDS AMONG INTENDING DONORS

Laboratory testing to identify HIV infection has been used throughout the world for over 20 years, and continues to be a major intervention in protecting recipients of blood and tissues (Constantine et al., 2005). Serological screening of donor blood for HIV antibodies remains a critical component in identifying and eliminating HIV infected blood donations (Nkengasong et al., 1999) but, this test rarely detect HIV antigen positive blood donors who are in the window period.

 

Detection of this early viraemic stage continues to be a challenge in transfusion medicine worldwide because of the possibility of transmitting HIV infection (Polywka et al., 2005). Many countries employ stringent blood donor selection criteria to defer potentially infectious donors with high risk of HIV infection and employ highly sensitive screening methods like Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing (NAAT) in a nationally coordinated Blood Transfusion Service. Following this approach, developed countries like the United States of America (USA), United Kingdom (UK) and France have successfully reduced infections through their blood supplies and the window period from an average of 22 days based on antibody ELISA to 11days using NAAT (Busch et al., 2003). In Africa where about 5 to 10% of cases of HIV are reported to have been acquired through blood transfusion (WHO, 2002), the use of sensitive testing assays has persistently posed a daunting challenge for most nations.

 

In Nigeria, the national prevalence of HIV among blood donors was reported to be 4.4% (PEPFAR, 2006) though, different researchers (Irene, 2002; Durosinmi et al., 2003; Imoru et al., 2003; Ejele et al., 2005) have reported varying prevalence from different parts of Nigeria depending on the setting, nature of blood donation, population prevalence, donor selection criteria and methods of assays employed in testing. Pre-transfusion screening of blood is aimed at reducing to the barest minimum the acquisition of transfusion transmissible infections like HIV through donated blood. Facilities for early detection of infection with newer technologies in asymptomatic carriers thereby narrowing the window period are not available in the study setting. Screening of blood donors rely on available antibody-based detection method for HIV infection. Local data from this centre on the percentage of post transfusion acquired HIV infection are lacking as far as the authors are aware.

 

1.2 Problem Statement

Detection of the early viraemic stage of HIV continues to be a challenge in transfusion medicine worldwide because of the possibility of transmitting HIV infection. Serelogical screening of donor blood for HIV antibodies remains a critical component of identifying and eliminating HIV infected blood donations but this test rarely detect HIV antigen positive blood donors who are in the window period. Hence there is need to assess the prevalence of HIV/AIDS among intending donors.

 

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major objective of the study is the prevalence of HIV/AIDS among intending donors.

 

1.4 Research Questions

(1) what is HIV/AIDS?

(2) what are its mode of transmission?

(3) what is its prevalence in the population?

(4) why the need to know its prevalence among intending donors?

 

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study gives a clear insight into the prevalence of HIV/AIDS among intending donors. It also serves part of a preliminary study to identify intending blood donors that are medically fit to donate blood.

 

1.6 Scope of the study

The research focuses on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS among intending donors.

 

 REFERENCES

Baah ATD, Azumah DE, Ampiah C, Boampong J, Nuvor SV (2014). Incidence of human immunodeficiency virus in sickle cell patients in the Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana. World J. AIDS. 4:338-340.

 

Busch MP, Kleinman SH, Nemo GJ (2003). Current and emerging infectious risks of blood transfusion. JAMA 289(8):959-962.

Crossref

 

 

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) World factbook (2012). HIV/AIDS –adult prevalence rate in Nigeria.

 

 Constantine NT, Zink H (2005). HIV testing technologies after two decades of evolution. Indian J. Med. Res. 121(4):519-38.

 

 Coombs RW, Reichelderfer PS, Landay AL (2003). Recent observations on HIV type-1 infection in the genital tract of men and women. AIDS 17:455.

 

Durosinmi MA, Mabayoje VO, Akinola NO, Adegunloge AB, Alabi AO (2003). A retrospective study of prevalence of antibody to HIV in blood donors at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Niger. Postgrad. Med. J. 10(4):220-223.

 

 Egesie OJ, Egesie UG (2011). Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors in Jos. In: Eugenia Barros (ed). HIV infection – impact, awareness and social implications of living with HIV/AIDS (ISBN 979-953-307-190-8) by In Tech, Rijeka-Croatia. pp. 233-240. www.intechopen.com

 

 Ejele OA, Nwauche CA, Erhabor O (2005). Seroprevalence of HIV infection among blood donors in Port Harcount, Nigeria. Niger. J. Med. 14(3):287-289.

 

 Imoru M, Eke C, Adegoke A (2003). Prevalence of hepatitis B Surface antigen, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors in Kano State, Nigeria. J. Med. Lab. Sci. 12(1):59-63.

 

 

Irene PA (2002). Prevalence of HIV/AIDS virus among blood donors in Lagos Island. A Nigeria experience. Intl. Conf. AIDS. Abstract no. C10834.

 

 

Koofreh M, Nwauche CA, Ughoma HA (2008). Prevalence of HIV infection among secondary school students in two cities in south-south Nigeria. Port Harcourt Med. J. 2(3):253-256.

 

Myer L, Kuhn L, Stein ZA, Wright TC Jr, Denny L (2003). Intravaginal practices, bacterial vaginosis, and women's susceptibility to HIV infection: epidemiological evidence and biological mechanisms. Lancet Infect. Dis. 5(12):786-794.

Crossref

 

 

National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey (NARHS) (2012). National HIV prevalence rate. www.naca.gov.ng/new/content/hiv-prevalence-rate-states

 

 

Ngo SF, Eboumbou C, Ngouadjeu E, Zouhairatou H, Mbanya D (2013). Prevalence of HIV seropositivity among sickle cell disease patients at Yaounde Central Hospital. Health Sci. Dis. 14(2):1-4.

 

 

Nkengasong JN, Maurice C, Koblavi S, Kalou M, Yavo D, Maran M, Bile C, N'guessan K, Kouadio J, Bony S, Wiktor SZ, Greenberg AE (1999). Evaluation of HIV serial and parallel serologic testing algorithms in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. AIDS 13:109-117.

Crossref

 

 

Polywka S, Duttmann H, Lubben F, Laufs R, Felder JA (2005). New Combined HIV P24 Antigen and Anti-HIV 1/2/0 Screening Assay. J. Virol. Methods 304:229-243.

Crossref

 

 

Roberts CR, Longfield JN, Platte RC, Zielmanski KP, Wages J, Fowler A (1994). Transfusion-associated HIV type 1 from screened antibody-negative blood donor. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 118(12):1188-1192

 

The president's emergency plan for AIDS relief. Report on blood safety and HIV/AIDS (2006). http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/74125.pdf

 

 Ubesie AC, Emodi IJ, Ikefuna AN, Ilechukwu GC, Ilechukwu GCA (2012). Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus transmission among transfused children with sickle cell anaemia in Enugu, Nigeria. Ann. Med. Health Sci. Res. 2(2):109-113.

Crossref

 

 

World Health Organization (WHO) (2002). Blood safety unit. Aide-Memoire for national blood programmes. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/bloodsafety/transfusion_services/en/Blood_Safety_Eng.pdf

PREVALENCE OF HIV/AIDS AMONG INTENDING DONORS

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Laboratory testing to identify HIV infection has been used throughout the world for over 20 years, and continues to be a major intervention in protecting recipients of blood and tissues (Constantine et al., 2005). Serological screening of donor blood for HIV antibodies remains a critical component in identifying and eliminating HIV infected blood donations (Nkengasong et al., 1999) but, this test rarely detect HIV antigen positive blood donors who are in the window period... health and kinetics project topics

PREVALENCE OF HIV/AIDS AMONG INTENDING DONORS

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  • TYPE : PROJECT MATERIAL
  • FORMAT : MICROSOFT WORD
  • ATTRIBUTE : Documentation Only
  • PAGES : 55 Pages
  • CHAPTERS : 1 - 5
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