This project work focused on the relationship between drug abuse and
tone of discipline in secondary schools in Owa East Local Government
Area of Edo State.
In order to achieve an organized and peaceful school environment and
maintain law and order in our society, the place of discipline among
students in our secondary schools cannot be over emphasized. It is also
necessary to direct students to exhibit acceptable attitude and behavior
within and outside the school. It was discovered in this research work
that to be able to curb the menace of drug abuse in the society,
teachers, parents/guardians, school administrator and the government at
all levels have a role to play.
A survey research design was used in the execution of this research
study. Questionnaire was administered to elicit data from respondents.
I was revealed by this study that discipline in school enhances
effective teaching and learning processes. It was also revealed that
drug abuse among secondary school students is a result of drug culture
created by parents. As it is commonly believed that children will always
emulate the example set for them by their parents. A child whose
parents smoke or drink alcohol will definitely drink and smoke because
his/her parents do. Therefore, parents should endeavour to set a good
example for their children to emulate.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 9
Research Questions 9
Objectives of the Study 10
Significance of the Study 11
Delimitation of the Study 12
Limitation of the Study 13
Definition of Terms 13
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Overview of Drug Abuse 16
Types of Drug 20
Causes of Drug Abuse 23
Effects of Drug Abuse 25
Symptoms of Drug Abuse 27
Strategies for Controlling Drug Abuse 28
Overview of Tone of Discipline 29
The Role of Government in Enforcing Discipline in
Secondary Schools 36
The Role of Parents/Guardians in Enforcing Discipline 37
The Role of the Teacher in Administering Discipline 38
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Research Design 41
Sample and Sampling Procedure 43
Administration of Instrument 44
Presentation and Analysis of Data 45
Discussion of Findings 59
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
Background to the Study
From independence, the secondary school system of education in
Nigeria experienced a high level of discipline. The attitudes and
behavior of secondary school students was worthy of emulation.
In recent times, the high level of discipline experienced in our
secondary school system has drastically declined resulting in all kinds
of social vices including drug abuse. That is the reason the researcher
has decided to find out the relationship between drug abuse and tone of
discipline in secondary schools in Owan East Local Government Area of
The importance of discipline in our secondary schools cannot be
over-emphasized. Students are priceless assets and most essential
elements in education. It is absolutely necessary to direct students to
exhibit acceptable attitude and behavior within and outside the school.
In an attempt to achieve an organized and peaceful school environment
and maintain law and order, government and school management specify
rules and regulations to guide the activities of students in the school.
Schools’ indiscipline seems to be ubiquitous in the 21st century in
Nigeria. Students’ discipline is a part of socialization. With recent
increase in school enrolment, students discipline problems are bound to
accentuate and cause more burdens on school administrators.
Teachers and school heads are equally expected to discharge their
duties and responsibility in the context of the laws, rules and
regulations. The education system in general is a productive undertaking
with inputs process, outputs and objectives. The processing of the
inputs is aimed at producing outputs which reflect the attainment of the
objectives for which the school was set up. The harmonious interaction
of teachers and students is very important for the successful
realization of the goals and purposes of education based on National
Policy on Education.
What then is discipline?
Imaguezor (1997) sees discipline as a process of training and learning
that fosters growth and development with laid down rules of the society
to which all members must conform, and the violation of which are
questionable and also punished. The aim of discipline is to help the
individual to be well adjusted, happy and useful to himself and to the
society. To be discipline means to instruct a person to follow a
particular code of conduct that is acceptable to the society.
Discipline, according to Jemibewon (1976) is a highly desirable
quality of human being or social group. Disciplined behavior is accepted
as essential characteristics of any educated or cultured persons.
Discipline, therefore, is a subject of great concern to parents,
teachers and administrators who are interested in the moulding of the
character of students in the secondary school system.
In Nigeria, there appears to be a great concern about the lack of
discipline in our schools. However, the problem of widespread
indiscipline among primary school pupils and secondary school students
is clearly noticed. Every year serious cases of rioting, arson, and
damages to school property occur in many schools. IN spite of the
extreme cases of indiscipline that attract newspapers headlines, there
are routine cases of truancy, disobedience, absenteeism, drug abuse,
fighting and other examples of indiscipline in the classroom which do
not appear or are not reported in newspapers. Indiscipline among
students in the secondary schools has attracted much attention from
parents who blame teachers for the indiscipline among school pupils and
students, from teachers who blame the parents for not playing their
roles as pares and also government and school administrators for
improper legislation and enforcement of school rules and regulations.
Nigeria, like every other nation wants to live in peace and harmony
with her fellow country people regardless of their various ethnic groups
and religious affiliation. Today, education has contributed and
attracted increased government’s attention among other priorities. If
education will continue to attract government attention, then,
discipline must be maintained in our secondary schools and the school
system in general since learning and teaching cannot effectively take
place under a threatened atmosphere.
Today, acts of indiscipline: riot, vandalism, lawlessness and the
breakdown of law and order has become a way of life of our present
school system. What then could be responsible for these acts of
indiscipline in our school system?
World Health Organization (WHO, 1980) expert committee on drug
dependence defined drug abuse as “a state psychic and sometimes also
physical resulting from the interaction between a drug and a living
organism characterized by behavioural and other responses that always
include a compulsion to take the drug on a continuous or periodic basis
in how to experience its psychic effects and sometimes to avoid
discomfort of its absence, tolerance may be dependent on more than one
drug. There may be physiological changes produced in the body as a
result of continued consumption of a particular drug.
Reports on Public Health Technical Report Series (1982) defined drug as substance which act on a person central
nervous system to produce change in sensations, mood and perception,
such drugs need not have any recognized medical value but the changes
they induce are usually at the early state of pleasurable use.
Generally, drug abuse can be said to be the use of any drug usually self
administered, in a way that deviates from the approved medical, social
or cultural pattern, drug abuse and use especially among secondary
school students can prevent the building of a useful and successful
life. That is, it may lead to giving up from an historical perspective,
the drug abuse scale in Nigeria continues to change.
Drug abuse has specific effects on the brain, it can somewhat vary
depending on the drug that is being used, virtually every drug that is
abused has an effect on the executive functioning areas of the brain.
Drug abuse particularly affects the brain’s ability to inhibit actions
that the person would otherwise delay or prevent.
This study will unveil the relationship between drug abuse and the tone
of discipline in secondary schools, how inappropriate administration of
discipline or lack of discipline or laisser-faire attitude on the part
of both parents and teachers is the root cause of drug abuse in
Statement of the Problem
The problem is the relationship between drug abuse and tone of
discipline in secondary schools in Owan East Local Government Area of
Edo State. This study is to identify the students’ discipline problems
such as truancy, stealing, fighting, drug abuse and other social vices.
The factors responsible for these indiscipline acts and how to remedy
its negative effect on the school and the society.
Is drug abuse and tone of discipline correlated?
Is teachers’ job dissatisfaction and tone of discipline correlated?
Is peer group influence and drug abuse correlated?
Is the inconsistent enforcement of discipline and drug abuse correlated?
There is no significant difference between drug abuse and tone of discipline in secondary schools.
There is no significant difference between teacher’s job dissatisfaction and tone of discipline in secondary schools.
There is no significant difference between peer group influence and drug abuse.
There is no significant difference between the inconsistent enforcement of discipline and drug abuse.
Objectives of the Study
The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between
drug abuse and the tone of discipline in secondary schools in Owan East
Local Government Area of Edo State.
The study is therefore expected to sample the opinion of teachers and
students about drug abuse and tone of discipline. The study will also
find out the different types of drugs that are being abused.
This study will also look at the tone of discipline in secondary schools
today and the tone of discipline in secondary schools in the last few
decades, why the differences if there are.
Significance of the Study
It is hoped that this research work will help students to build their
personality and also the outcome of this research is expected to be of
immense help to the students, teachers, parents/guardians and the entire
local government at large.
The findings of this research work will be useful to the Ministry of
Education in Owan East Local Government Area on how to improve on the
present way of enlightenment on drug abuse and also the proper
enforcement of disciplinary measures on students in secondary schools.
Finally, the researcher hoped that the findings of this research work
will be useful to secondary schools within and outside Owan East Local
Delimitation of the Study
This study was designed to cover all the secondary schools in Owan
East Local Government Area. The population of the study were all the
principals, vice principals, teachers and students from each school but
for the sampling purpose four secondary schools are used. The
principals, some selected teachers and students are used for the study.
Limitation of the Study
The researcher was restricted by number of factors which include:
Finance: There was no money to go into different areas of the research work.
Unwillingness on the part of some students not to co-operate with the
work as some feel that certain questions are inappropriate as far as
they are concerned.
Definition of Terms
Threatened: To express a threat of harm or violence.
Vandalism: The crime of destroying or damaging something especially public property.
Depression: The feeling of sadness
Alertness: To make some time very different
Permeates: To affect every part of something.
Elixir: A magic liquid that is believed to cure illnesses or to make people live for ever.
Cutch: Something or person that gives you help or support but often makes you depend on them too much.
Omnipotence: Feeling of having total power.
Bankrupt: Without enough money to pay what you owe.
Infiltrates: To pass slowly into something.
Extinction: A situation where something stop existing.
Rehabilitate: To help someone to have a normal useful life again.
Penalty: Punishment for breaking a law.
Controversial: Causing a lot of angry public discussion and disagreement.
Climate: A general attitude or feeling which exist in a particular place.
Bully: A person who uses their strength or power to frighten or hurt weaker people.
Accentuate: To make something more noticeable.
Burdens: Duties or responsibilities that cause worries.
Treacherous: Something that cannot be trusted.
Awkward: Make somebody feel embarrassed.
Contravene: To do something that is not allowed by law.
Cache: A hidden store of things such as weapons.