1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
21st century is also an era of stress. Individuals face job stress in their
organization and daily lives due to globalization, information technology
revolution, and speed of life. The most important effects of these can be seen
in the business world, and they can manifest themselves as changes that organizations
make in their structures, strategies, activities, and technologies. Constantly
changing organizations impose new roles and duties on their employees which
have effect on their work life balance, and the employees who want to handle
new roles and duties need to have efficiency in intelligence quotient (IQ) and
efficiency in emotional quotient (EQ) in the processes of decision making and
problem solving. A completely stress-free life is impossible, and stress
becomes a characteristic of human existence. Individuals have used various
methods to handle stress, including using their intelligence, especially their
emotional intelligence (Sirin, 2007). Emotional intelligence (EI) is a social
intelligence that enables people to recognize their own, and other peoples'
emotions. Moreover, emotional intelligence enables people to differentiate
those emotions, and to make appropriate choices for thinking and action (Cooper
and Sawaf, 1997; Mayer and Salovey, 1993). It is an intelligence that may be
learned, developed and improved (Perkins, 1994; Sternberg, 1996).Emotional intelligence
(EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control, and evaluate emotions. Some
researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened,
while other claim it is an inborn characteristic. It is also, defined as the ability
to use your awareness and sensitivity to discern the feelings underlying interpersonal
communication, and to resist the temptation to respond impulsively and thoughtlessly,
but instead to act from receptivity, authenticity and candour (Ryback,1998).
Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer (1990) in their influential article “Emotional Intelligence,”
defined emotional intelligence as, “the subset of social intelligence that involves
the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate
among them and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions”.
Emotionally intelligent people are defined in part as those who regulate their
emotions according to a logically consistent model of emotional functioning.
intelligence allows employee to think more creatively and use his emotions to
solve problems. Daniel Goleman believes that emotional intelligence appears to
be an important set of psychological abilities that relates to work life
balance and life success. It is empathy and communication skills as well as
social and leadership skills that will be central to your work life balance and
personal relationships. The ability to manage feelings and handle stress is
another aspect of emotional intelligence that has been found to be important
for successful work life balance. Emotional intelligence has as much to do with
knowing when and how to express emotion as it does with controlling it. Empathy
is a particularly important aspect of emotional intelligence. Emotions are more
successful in work as well as in social lives. Emotional Intelligence is now
being considered to be an important organizational factor.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
is recognized worldwide as a major challenge to workers health and the
healthiness of organizations. Stress can be brought about by pressures at work.
Job stress can be a real problem to the organization as well as to the workers.
Job stress can manifest itself in numerous ways. A range of somatic and mental
ailments such as, tension headaches, allergies, back problems, colds and flu,
depression (Arroba & James, 1990), anxiety, irritation, tension and
sleeplessness(Cooper, Cooper & Eaker, 1988) and may lead to health
compromising coping strategies such as increased consumption of cigarettes,
alcohol and drugs (Quick, Nelson & Quick, 1990).Chronic exposure to stress
may have even very serious consequences such as cancer, heart disease,
respiratory illnesses, strokes, arthritis, ulcers and high blood pressure (Quick,
Nelson& Quick, 1990; Cooper, Cooper & Eaker, 1988). However, all
individuals do not develop such problems in face of stress. However, the
researcher is examining the role of emotional intelligence and work life
balance in job stress.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
following are the objectives of this study:
examine the role of emotional intelligence and work life balance in job stress
find out the relationship between emotional intelligence and job stress
identify the factors causing job stress in a work place
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
is the role of emotional intelligence and work life balance in job stress?
is the relationship between emotional intelligence and job stress?
are the factors causing job stress in a work place?
1.6 Research Hypothesis
Ho: There is no significant relationship
between emotional intelligence and job stress.
Hi: There is no significant relationship
between emotional intelligence and job stress.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
following are the significance of this study:
outcome of this study will educate the general public and managers of corporate
organizations on the causes of job stress for the employee and how emotional
intelligence can be used to maintain proper work life balance.
research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers
interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if
applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.
1.8 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
study on the role of emotional intelligence and work life balance in job stress
will cover all the factors that causes job stress and approaches by which
emotional intelligence can be used to maintain a stable work life balance.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the
researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information
and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will
simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently
will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.