The private and public sector of the Nigeria economy have tried in
their effort to address some of the problems associated with manpower
training and development. Since independence, both the state and
federal government determination to achieve self sufficiency in the
workforce has called for higher level of technical and manpower to
steer up commercial and industrial activities.
Ogbonna (1984) observed that plan at the preliminary stage,
however faced inaccurate statistical data for effective national labour
force planning. The planner also encountered problems of whether to
focus on higher or lower level of education to meet up with the higher,
demand for industrial, governmental machinery and democratic ideas of
equal opportunity for all citizens. The plan is aimed at striking a
balance between the need for skilled manpower and general mass
Also in the 1980 plan, government gave priority to the issue of
training and development of its manpower but rather than solving the
problems and ensuring adequate training of the employees, it suffered
some set back arising from lack of infrastructure and takes off tools
such as good road, accommodation etc.
The banking industry like any other industry in Nigeria was also
affected by manpower problems. Oyebola (1980) observed that the
earliest bank such as standard bank now First Bank of Nigeria Plc,
Barclays bank now Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Arab bank, National bank,
other indigenous banks, faced a lot of managerial, technical and
operational skills problems. These problems lead to the collapse of
some indigenous banks, which could not withstand the competitions posed
by foreign banks. The common training given to the personnel in the
bank then was on the job training or instruction as to how and what job
to be done. Thus, there were no formal and informal training.
Ejiofor (1981), identified some major courses of failure in manpower development effort in Nigeria, these include:
- There is more concentration of training between the top
management rather than sharing the training between the top and lower
level management personnel.
- Planning without adequate manpower statistics leading to problems of implementation.
- Both government and business organization under funded manpower development programme.
2.1 History of Training in the Banking Industry
In overcoming the problems above, modem training was pioneered in
Nigeria banking industry by first bank of Nigeria PIc, 1949 and had its
training school in 1953. Since then, other banks have aspired to do
likewise and it has resulted in the emergence of many training schools
in the banking sector. However at the global level employee training
programme was greatly influenced by the following bodies:
- Industrial Training fund (ITF) came to being in 1971and it
aimed at encouraging adequate training of manpower to run industry and
commerce. ITF decree of 1971 enforced all companies having at least 23
persons in the payroll to pay one percent (1 %) of their annual rolls
in the fund. The money is used to promote and acquire skills to
generate a pool of indigenous trained manpower to meet the nation
- Centre for Management Development (CMD)
- National Institute for Policy and Strategy Studies (NIPSS)
- Administrative Staff College of Nigeria (ASCON)
- Higher institutions such as universities and polytechnics also
contribute. It trains personnel in bank and other financial
institutes. it also promote, protects and advances knowledge.
2.2 Training and Development
Isa Mohammed (2001), by way of definition, manpower en to
represent a systematic process of training and growth by which
individual gain and apply skill, knowledge, insights and attitude to
manage work organization effectively. He defined training as the
organized procedure by which people learn skills and knowledge for a
definite purpose. Also training is a process of preparing human
resources for the best service to their organization. He said at one
extreme, training of a few hours or minute of induction by the
supervisor who gives the new employees a skeletal outline of the bank,
policies location etc. At the other extreme, training consist of
several year of formal course designed to develop qualified specialist.
Development on the other hand is not specific but it is more general
in its application. It is used in facilitating managerial employees who
perform non routine jobs to improve their managerial, administrative
and decision making abilities and competence.
To Ojo (1998), Training refers to the way in which specific
knowledge and skills necessary to perform a specific job are taught:
and learnt. To him development implies a parallel process in which
people acquired more general abilities and information, but in ways
that cannot always be tied directly to a particular task they perform.
G.A. Cole (1997), Training will be understood as any learning l
activity which is directed toward the acquisition of specific knowledge
and skills or the purposes of an occupation or task. The focus of
training is the job task. While to him, development is any learning
activity which is directed towards future needs rather than present
needs, and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate
performance. The focus of development tends to be primarily on an
organizations future manpower requirements and secondly on the growth
needs of individuals in workplace.
2.3 Training Need’s and Job Analyzed
In some cases, the determination of training need is fairly
straight forward process that may be conducted without an extensive
analysis of the organization for instance; all new employees normally
undergo orientation training. An impending technology change such as
the introduction of new computer hardware will automatically require
the need for training requirements to resolve deficiencies in skills or
to address career developmental needs, necessitate much greater
analysis by training needs that result from performance problems, the
trainer must systematically collect and analyze employees output,
product quality and attitude.
Training needs may be gathered by using variety of methods. Some of these methods include:
- Advisory committees: This generally comprises various levels
of management and some organization creates committees to represent the
various functions such as production and accounting.
The committee is charged with the responsibility of determining
whether a particular problem is a training problem and establishes
- Assessment centre: Assessment centre are mostly used for
management development, the assessment center requires participants to
undergo a series of exercise and test to determine their strength and
worked in performing management tasks. The center is used primarily to
predict success in managerial vote, its in measuring to aiming needs is
- Attitude Surveys: This is most effective in measuring the
general level of job satisfaction but the data gathered may show
various areas where training need exist.