The research was conducted
to investigate the Role of Organizational Culture on Employee Job
Performance at Dangote Agro Sack Limited. The study adopted survey
research method and a sample size of 240 respondents were drawn from the
population through simple random sampling technique. Data was generated
by 'questionnaire administration and the collected data was presented
and analyzed with the aid of statistical tools. It was concluded among
others that organizational culture has positive effect on workers'
performance which is based on the findings that companies derive core
values and beliefs that guide the conduct of her workers in all spheres
of business activities. The study recommends that organizational culture
and value should be reviewed at appropriate times so as to derive new
values that will conform to changes in the business environment.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Scope of the study
1.7 Significance of the study
1.8 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review
2.2 Organizational Culture
2.3 Internalization Process
2.4 Perception of Organizational Expectations
2.5 Simple Organizational Schema
2.6 Cultural Rewards
2.7 Model of Organizational Culture
2.8 The Significance of Organizational Culture
2.9 Culture and Organizational Climate
2.10 Culture and Values
2.11 Relationship between Cultures, Climate and Values
CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of Study
3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Technique
3.4 Sources of Data Collection
3.5 Research Instrument
3.6 Restatement of Research Hypotheses
3.7 Method of Data Analysis
3.8 Problem Encountered on the Field
CHAPTER FOUR: Data Analysis and Presentation
4.2 Respondents Characteristic and Classification
4.3 Data Presentation According to Respondents View
4.4 Test of Hypotheses
5.1 Summary of Findings
5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies
1.1 Background of the Study
The term culture refers to
a relatively stable set of beliefs, values and behaviors commonly held
by a society, being derived from social anthropology as a framework for
understanding "primitive" societies (Kotter and Heskett, 1992).
The term organizational
culture was used for the first time in the academic literature by
Pettigrew in 1979 in the journal "Administrative Science Quarterly".
Organizational culture was used to explain the economic successes of
Japanese firms over American firms by motivating workers who were
committed to a common set of core values, beliefs and assumptions
(Denison, 1984). One of the most important reasons that explain the
interest in organizational culture is the assumption that certain
organizational cultures lead to an increase in organizational financial
performance. According to Peters and Waterman (1982) successful
organizations possess certain cultural traits of excellence. Ouchi
(1981) showed a positive relationship between organizational culture and
The literature on
organizational culture is rich and diverse. Much of its richness is
founded on the claim that culture is linked to organizational
performance. Even though there' are some theorists that questioned the
culture-performance link, sufficient evidence exists to suggest that
organizational culture is associated with organizational performance
(Ogbonna and Harris, 2000).
For this reason, this study will examine, based on existent empirical research, the link between culture and performance.
permeates organizational life in such a way as to influence every aspect
of the organization (Scaffold, 1988).
Organizational culture has
been defined as the "normative glue" that holds an organization
together (Tichy, 1982, p. 63). Forehand and von Gilmer (1964) suggest
that culture is the set of characteristics that describe an organization
and distinguish it from others. Schein (1990), in a more comprehensive
fashion, defines culture as values and behaviors that are believed to
lead to success 'and are thus taught to new members. Central to the
culture definition is the idea that culture must be leamed and shared
(Titiev, 1959). As individuals enter and become participating members of
an organization, they are exposed to beliefs and values that begin the
Initial development of cultural internalization. To understand the
culture of an organization and its development, it is important to
analyses its 'birth' and history. For example: if an organization is
born out of. Protest against the existing system, the fighting mood can
be very strong. However useful that may have been in the beginning, such
a fighting mood can become a hindrance, if the organization sticks to
it, without an actual reason. This requires an attempt to understand the
organization within its history and contexts. The traumas that
influence the way they deal with external influences or change.
Understanding is more useful than getting angry. (Michael, 2000).
refers to what we call the personality of an organization; if the
structure of the organization is the body; the bone
Structure, the feeding
structure of blood vessels and the communication channels of nervous
system, then the personality .or soul is the way people deal with one
another, the values and beliefs that exist within the organization.
Restructuring an organization, in order to achieve a certain goal, often
fails or gets stuck because the personality does not change. That is
why we focus on the culture of the organization when dealing with
Organizational culture is
not the result of just a decision, but the outcome of a lasting process,
in which the attitude, beliefs and behaviour of people are gradually
shaped. Organizational culture, even if not objectively effective, is
always a logical adaptation to a changed environment. Organizational
culture may be compared to coping mechanisms: once effective in one
specific situation, but internalized, unconscious familiar, and hardly
noticeable for the owner.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
Organizational culture is a
problem when the way in which the organization usually operates puts
obstacles in the way towards achievement. The same problem is applicable
to many companies in Nigeria irrespective of whether big or small. More
specifically, the following problems can limit workers performance; the
.goals of the organization demand an external orientation of the
members, but the organizational culture is characterized by internal
orientation. Therefore, the gap between the external and internal
orientations may constitute a hindrance to workers performance in
necessary steps are not taken.
Transparency' is needed to
be accountable and' to function democratically, but the tradition to
involve family members and to favour them, may makes transparency cloudy
~ The not-outspoken rule not to intervene in each other's work (the
non-intervention principle) may hinder the ideal working method of
sharing ideas, innovations, solutions and problems.
Because of the one-sided
fixation on ideology, satisfaction of personal needs may be considered
as' forbidden therefore, organization culture is seen as a treat by
worker rather than business ideology.
1.3 Objectives of, the Study
The primary objective pf the study is to examine the role of
Organizational culture on Employee Job Performance. However, the specific objectives of the study are;
- To examine the relationship between organizational culture and workers performance
ii. To examine the effect of both external .and internal orientations on organization culture.
iii. To discover how the goals of an organization influences both the internal and external orientations of the organization.
iv. To highlight the challenges of organization culture in Nigeria companies.
1.4 Research Questions
In the light of the above objectives, the following are the research Questions for the study;
i. What is the relationship between organizational culture and workers performance?
ii. What are the effects of both external and internal orientations on organization culture?
iii. In what way does organization goals influences both the Internal and external orientations of the organization?
iv. To highlight the challenges of organization culture in Nigeria Companies?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Stated below are the research hypothesis for the study;
(1) Ho: Organization culture do not have significant relationship with Workers performance
Hi: Organization culture has significant relationship with workers Performance
(2) Ho: Organization goals does not have significant affect organization culture in Nigeria
Hi: Organization goals have significant effect on organization culture
1.6 Scope of the Study
The. Study covers
organizational culture in the manufacturing. Represented by corporate
symbol, internal orientation of the staff and the influence 'of the
corporate. Goals on the norms and values of the organization.
Specifically, the scope cover workers of Dangote Agro Sack Ltd.
1.7 Significance of the Study
It has been suggested that
organizational culture affects such outcomes as productivity,
performance, commitment, self-confidence, and ethical behavior (Deal
& Kennedy, 1982; Denison, 1984; Ouchi,
1981; Posner, Kouzes,
& Schmidt, 1985; Pritchard & Karasick, 1973; Sathe, 1985).
However, little has been done to develop theory that attempts to explain
the process through which individuals are affected by the
organization's culture. Instead, a large portion of the research has
concentrated on the "strong vs. weak" culture dichotomy (Deal
&Kennedy, 1982), suggesting that culture manifests varying degrees
of influence over the members of an organization. While there have been
attempts to examine culture's influence over the cognitive process
through which individuals interpret their environment (Denison, 1990;
Harris, .1989), further work in this area is needed. However, research
into the transmission ·of cultural values and norms remains as a
neglected area in the study of organizational culture (Shroff &.
'Kozlowski, 1992). It is the object of this research to present a model
of organizational culture that examines the effect on the cognitive
Process is and helps explain the influence that organizations may have
in creating and maintaining a distinct and recognizable culture.
1.8 Definition or Terms.
The following are the definition of terminologies used in the course of this study;
Organizational culture: is the set of characteristics that describe an organization and distinguish it from, others.
Organizational values define the acceptable standards that govern the
behaviour of individuals within the organization. Without such values,
individuals will pursue behaviours that are in line with their own
individual value systems, which may lead to behaviours that the
organization doesn't wish to encourage.
Personal Value: Personal
values are the beliefs, values, and philosophies that someone holds
about life, its purpose, and our own purpose own purpose.
Value: Important and enduring beliefs or ideals shared by the members of a culture about what is good or desirable and what is not.