This research project it titled “the
Role of Communication in Enhancing labour-Management Relations (A case
study of Academic Pres Plc, Lagos). The study has assessed the role of
communication within the context of labour-management relationship,
practice, but with special focus on the employees of Academic Press Plc.
Lagos, as a case. Communication is household word which tends to
facilitate understanding and co-operation in the conduct of human
activities. Furthermore, communication is a vital tool in achieving
organizational goods and enhancing industrial harmony. Management needs
to communicate effectively with workers in order to get the desired
results from their efforts. Also, workers have to understand the
policies and objectives of management, if they must be efficient and
effective in the fulfillment of their job responsibilities. Hence,
workers expect to be informed at all-time about issues that generally
This study was primarily embarked upon
to discover how communication can be sued to create a better atmosphere
for labour and management to co-exist and operate peacefully and
profitably in the purist of the set goals and objectives of the
organization. In addition, the study also sought to find out the extent
to which any existence of communication gap would do good or harm to
the operations of various organizations, using Academic Press Plc, as a
case example. The copious literature was reviewed to analyze the views
of different scholars and researchers on the definition, role and
application of communication in labour management. This historical
background of the study organization was also particularly studies to
familiarizes both the researcher and readers with the mode of operation,
origin and the human resources policy of that organization. The details
of these are provided in chapter two of this Research Report.
The substantive issues of methodology
and data processes are fully elaborated in Chapter Three. In Chapter
Four, the research data are presented, analyzed and interpreted. In the
analysis of data, particular use was made of the chi-square(x2)
statistic, in the testing of research hypotheses and the determination
of statistical relationship among the research variables. Essentially,
the questionnaires instrument, and the associated social interviews had
served well the needs of data gathering and research objectively. The
usage of a combination of research methods, that is, pure survey
strategies (e.g standard questionnaires and interviewing) along with
documentary analysis and extended observation of employee behavior, as
well as other industrial phenomena, had increased the robustness of data
collected and the overall quality of these data. Thus, the adopted
research techniques for this research had represented the best possible
in the field circumstances.
Finally, various recommendations are
made in chapter five for further research and for policy implementation
for mutual benefits that are derivable by the corporate organization,
the workforces and both the employee – based associations, and the
employers groups in Nigeria.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover page i
Table of content iii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 General backdrop of the research problem 6
1.2 Statement of the research problem 11
1.3 The purpose of the research study 14
1.4 Relevance of the research study 14
1.5. Scope and limitation of the research study 15
1.6 Research hypotheses 15
1.7 Definition of terms 16
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
2.1 Relationship between organization management
and communication tell an listen approach problem
solving approach 18
2.2 Communication process and its nature in the
organization process 30
2.3 Communication and organization theories 35
2.4 Communication channels downward
Communication channel 42
2.5 Communication and industrial relations 44
2.6 Communication problem / barriers 45
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Chapter review 50
3.2 Research and Field Process 50
3.3 Research instruments 51
3.4 Methods of data analysis 52
3.5 Historical background 52
3.6 Grading / groups 58
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Introduction 60
4.2 Background / descriptive information 60
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary of research findings 73
5.2 Conclusion 75
5.3 Recommendations 81
1.1 General Backdrop of the Research Problem
Maurice Cumming (1980)
describes communication as the process of conveying messages, facts,
ideals, attitudes, opinions from one person to another so that they are
understood. Communication is a household word which brings about
understanding and co-operation in all aspects of human activity. This
fact is supported by McCauley (1981) who states that men are never so
likely to settle a question rightly as when they discuss it freely. The
word "communication" is derived from the Latin word "communicare"
meaning 'to share', and from the French word “communs” meaning ‘common’.
Communication is a vital tool in achieving organizational goals and
enhancing industrial peace. Management must communicate effectively with
workers, in order to get eth desired results from their efforts. Also
workers have to understand the policies and objective of management if
they must be efficient and effective in carryout their duties. Workers
expects to be informed at all times on the issues that is affecting
them, to secure their loyalty and co—operation, their views must be
communicated on the issues that affecting their interest either as a
group or individual.
Management must also
communicate among themselves, if there must be cohesion in the overall
implementation of managerial polices within the organization. There is
no doubt that without communication, human interaction will be
impossible. It will result in the paralysis of social, economic and
political activities in the societies. Through communication, we have
been able to share knowledge and combine efforts. This ability has
enabled us to develop and expand our store of knowledge as well as our
technology and culture. Without the capacity to communicate at an
advanced 'level, mankind would never have progressed beyond the primal
Communication is important
in all facets of human endeavour. To this end, Stoner and Wankel
(1988) have asserted that communication is the process by which people
express themselves, and through which an individual gets others to
understand what he feels, thinks, wants, and needs, as well as accept
them and take action, if necessary.
As a matter of fact, there
can be no business transaction's or daily activities without the
necessary need to pass on or exchange information between the sender and
the receiver of that information. Communication can, therefore, be
regarded as the 'locomotive of management.
In most indusial
organization, two principal actors are identified. These are the
management or employers and the union or workers. The government thus
acts as the third pity in the industrial relations system, and their
roles, influence the economic growth of nay organization and the nation
Therefore, the achievement
of organizational objectives can only be realized through team work
efforts of the three actors, not by sole efforts of any of three actors
which necessitates human interactions and sharing or ideals. Thus, in
these situation that warrant human interaction, there is the
possibility of group differences based on varying emotions,'
misconceptions, negative perception of ideas, opinions, views, etc.
There is need to harmonize the apparent conflict of interests of both
the employers and employees. Thus, it is paramount that healthy
labour-management relations should be based on the spirit of reciprocity
and on the existence of adequate and effective communication. It is
against this background that an in achieving understanding and
co-operation in the work place.
Meanwhile, there is the
recent belief that the key to industrial peace and harmony is
"understanding" among the employers of labour and their employers.
However, people still wonder how this important objective can be fully
realized in a society characterized by frequent industrial crisis or
disputes. Consequently, every responsible organization should set up a
network of effective communication as a tool of informing, persuading,
understanding, instructing, entertaining and stimulating actions to
enhance industrial harmony. More so, communication is social activity,
which can be formed or informed, without the organization and outside,
essentially because of the increasing complexity of production and
distribution network is our commercial and industrial establishments
(Nnamdi Okeke, 1985).
Communication is the
action of people taking, listening, seeing, feeling and reacting to each
other, their experience and environment. Recent and past events
indicate that most industrial disharmony as manifested in the form of
strikes, lockout, picketing, inter-trade union squabbles, inability of
managers to het along with people, frustrations low productivity, lack
of co-operation, grievances, low morale distrust, disloyalty and so on,
could be attributed to faulty or poor Communication or Communication gap
Communication is the
coordinating force though which managerial functions of planning,
forecasting, of organizing etc and other operational function, such as
recruitment of staff, motivation and maintenance, are being organized.
Communication, whether written or oral, when neglected, can cause more
harm than good.
experiment with the use of communication as a therapy for curing and
finding out causes of mental normal condition. Communication reduces
tension in the working environment and causes once hidden conflicts to
surface for possible restoring psychotics to normal condition.
tension in the working environment and causes one hidden conflict to
surface for possible resolution. Hence, the importance of Communication
fosters motivation by clarifying to employees what is to be done, how
well they are doing, and what can be done to improve performance (Aremo,
For many employees, their
work group is a primary source for social interaction. The communication
that takes place within the group is a fundamental mechanism by which
members shows their frustrations and feelings of satisfaction.
Communication, therefore, provide a releases for the emotional
expression of feelings and for fulfillment of social need. (Aremon,
Thus, it is hoped that
this study will discover and suggest new areas in which communication
can help in reducing man’s inhumanity to man in an organization and how
communication can be used as vehicle for industrial growth.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
The study problem stems
from, the existing unhealthy relationship between labour and management
in most small and large organizations. Relationships between many
employers of labour and their employees sometimes remain strained. The
labour situation in this country is more of the practice of 'take it or
leave it'; it is also antagonism from the union or labour. The two
parties often see each other as gaining or winning when and where the
other loses, rather than as partners working towards the success of not
only the organization but of themselves.
organization expect from their employees is not easily achieved. One
manor reason for this shortcoming is the market and the employees. This
situation arises because workers who are sellers of labour power enter
the labour market in order to obtain the wherewithal to subsist, hence
the price of labour power is of vital importance to them. The
communication gap between the industrial actors (lavour and management)
is so wide that a minor problem which could be resolved through joint
consultation or collective bargaining often results in industrial
Even though the buyers of
labour power enter the market because they own the means of production,
the price of labour is, to them an important cost factor which should be
minimized as much as possible, in order to make production profitable.
Given this type of relationship, conflict appears inevitable.
Consequently, it is the
intention of the researcher to look into communication as a major
concern, which should be given the attention it deserves. Poor
communication is a problem, which has given rise to many sad and
unfortunate situations. This had led to situations whereby management
and workers purses diametrically opposed objectives. While management
may be working towards realizing the objective of increased
productivity, maximum efficiency and expansion, workers are often
committed to a different objective of finding and solidifying social
alignment in the work group in the event of any possible threat from
At a particular time, it
may be struggle for job security, while turning a deaf ear to
organizational production targets. Although some organization have
good communication policies to enhance better understanding among the
labour force, communication problems sill persist in many others because
of one or more of the following reason. Often deliberately or
accidentally. Inadequate or misleading information about the company’s
labour policies are given to immediate or line supervisors for
transmission to subordinates. Important information improperly
communicated, while neglecting the sue of workers representative, often
causes rancor between union members and management.
In addition, Fajana (1995)
discusses the importance of communication, thus, that is, Nigeria’s
management and labour individually take decisions which should have been
decided jointly. Also management other often feels reluctant to release
information, for example, accounting information may be misused. The
unions on the other hand, do claim they should know their employer’s
policy as regards human resources and general management.
Also, perhaps due to poor
communication network, management’s deliberations and resolutions on
future matter affecting employees carelessly, leak through the grape
vine or rumour. This often results to rumour mongering, distortion of
information and possible causes of industrial disharmony. Improper
communication methods can be seen in some organization where “tale
severs” (i.e those who act as spies in an office) are used to get or
give out information resulting to rumour mongering and discontentment in
working environment. They are many other problems related to
communication are to be consider in this study.
1.3 THE PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH STUDY
The purpose of the study
is to discuss how communication can be used to create a better
atmosphere for labour and management to operate peace fully and
profitably while pursuing the same organization set goals and
objectives, furthermore, it intends to find to the operations of an
organisation like academy press Plc. Also in order to reduce factors
which can bring disharmony in labour relations, this study intends to
identify how communication can help management and labour to approach
each other as partners in the production business rather than a mere
master-servant. It is also designed to examine that extent to which
communication can minimize worker’s confrontational attitude to
management. Most importantly is how communication can reduce labour turn
over and stabilize the labour force and evaluate its roles one reducing
accidents and thereby stimulating increased efficiency of productivity.
1.4 RELEVANCE OF THE RESEARCH STUDY
Man6 organization do not
seen to recognize communicator as a tool for achieving organizational
goals and enhancing industrial peace. Often times, are discovers that
communication is taken for granted by some organization in their
corporate planning strategies. With this development and because of the
import role constant and effective communication plays in an
organization, it is envisaged that data collection from there will
provide a basis for sold argument in providing or disproving any
assumption or hypothesis formulated for the purpose of a debate. This
study will assist managers, supervisors and all the staff in apprising
the role of communication in an organization.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE RESEARCH STUDY
The scope of this research
is restricted to Academy press Plc, Ilupeju. It will also cover various
channels of communication, types of relationship between the labour and
management in this organization and an examination of the environment
that distorts or influence free flow of communication.
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Three hypotheses are earmarked for testing in this research.
- That, effective communication will tend to promote/increase
- That, constant communication may not prevent poor working relations
and increase mutual trust. (i.e. that, there is no significant
relationship between constant communications and good working condition
and mutual trust).
3. That, establishing a good rapport between -labour and management may not avert possible strikes and lockouts.
HI: That increased productivity and efficiency may be fully achieved with the aid of communication
HO: That increased productivity and efficiency may not be fully achieved with the aid communication
HI: That constant communication may prevent poor working relationship and increase mutual trust
Ho: That constant communication may not prevent poor working relationship and increase mutual trust
HO: That establishing a good rapport between the labour and
management may avert possible strikes and lockouts.
HI: That establishing a good rapport between the labour and
management may not avert possible strikes and lockouts.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms are defined for the purpose of celerity.
- Communication:- Appleby (1981) defined
communication as the means where by people in an organization exchange
information regarding the-operation of an enterprise i.e. the inter
changing of id3eas, facts and emotions by two or more person by the use
of words, letters, symbols or speech.
- Effective: This means to be productive or been capable of producing.
- Efficient: Producing effectively and with the least waste of effort, to be competent.
- Impact: Means the effect on organizational success.
- Organization: Is an entity comprising a number of people working collectively towards achieving a common goal.
- Sender: The individual or person that conceives an idea at first
- Receiver: The person that the idea conceived is sent to or person who decodes the idea.