This study examined the
industrial relation climate and employee's satisfaction in the industry
at chevron Nigeria limited. Chapter one will consist of introduction,
statement of the problem, objective of the study, significance of the
study, formulation of the study (Hypothesis), Research question, scope
and limitation of the study, definition of term and organisation of the
study. Chapter two will deals with literature review and theoretical
framework. Chapter three is concern with various method use and
procedure in gathering of data or information. Chapter four consist of
data presentation and analysis. Chapter five deals with summary,
conclusion and recommendations.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Brief History of Chevron Corporation
2.1 Theoretical Perspective
2.2 The Context of Industrial Relation Climate
2.3 The Industrial Relations Climate: Economic, Social, Political and Technology
2.4 The Economic Context of Relations Climate and Satisfaction Industrial Employee
2.5 The Social Climate of Industrial Relations Climate and Employee Satisfaction
2.6 The Technological Context of Relations Climate and Satisfaction Industrial Employee
2.7 The Political Context of Industrial Relations Climate and Employee Satisfaction
2.8 Pressure on the Industry Relations Climate
2.9 Empirical Study on Industrial Climate and Employee Satisfaction
2.10 The Labour Management Synergy In Industrial Relations Climate
3.2 Research Design
3.5 Sampling Technique
3.6 Data Collection Instrument
3.7 Data Collection Procedure
3.8 Data Analysis
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1 Distribution and Collection of Questionnaires
4.2 Testing Of Hypotheses
4.3 Analysese of Other Responses
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Finding and Conclusions
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
An industrial society is a
highly complex and dynamic arrangement of differentiated groups,
activities and institutional relationships intertwined with a variety of
attitudes, beliefs and expectations. Industrial relations is only one
segment of this structure and activity and is influenced by, and in turn
influences, other segments. Actions or changes in these areas may
directly stimulate or constrain specific industrial relations activities
as well as indirectly influence the attitudes of the participant.
Industrial climate refers to the background or circumstances surrounding
a particular event or situation which may influence or constrain its
development. It is the evaluation that workers give to the policies,
practices and programs of the organization which also in turn influence
It is important to
recognize that these climates exert an influence at all levels of
industrial relations and therefore, as Fox (2005) stated,
'organizational issues, conflicts and values are inextricably bound up
with those of the society at large'. The role, relationships,
institutions, processes and activities which compose the phenomenon of
industrial relations exist in a wide variety of industries and services
and at number of levels ranging from the sub-organizational (workgroup,
section or department) and organizational (site or company) levels
through the industry level to the national level. This inevitably
creates a pattern of internal influences both horizontally (between
different organizations and industries) and vertically (between
industrial relations system, in terms of attitude and activity existing
within it at any point in time, provides its own context or climate for
the individual industrial relations situations.
The industrial relations
climate comprises of (political, social, economic and technology) which
surround industrial relations is composed of a number of interrelated
elements and each environment interrelates with other environments and
with the industrial relation system. For example, the growth of female
employment, and its importance for industrial relations, is closely
bound up with; ,changing social patterns and expectations In respect of
education, work and family arrangements, changes in industrial
structure, technology and the level of economic activity, as well as the
introduction of legislation directed towards reducing sex
discrimination in employment.
Employee satisfaction is
the terminology used to describe and needs at work. Many measures
purport that employee satisfaction is a factor in employee motivation,
employee goal, achievement and positive employee morale in the
while generally a positive in every organization, it can also be a
downer if mediocre employees stay because they are satisfied with the
There are some factors
contributing to employee satisfaction which include treating employees
with respect, providing regular employee recognition, empowering
employees offering above industry average benefits and compensation,
providing employee perks and company activities, and positive management
within a success framework of goals measurements and expectations.
Employee satisfaction IS often measured by anonymous employees
satisfaction surveys administered periodically that gauge employee
However, it is the
intension of this research study to provide a comprehensive analysis of
the interactive development and to highlight a number of the more
important changes which have taken places in these climates over the
post war periods.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Management can often take
for granted labour evaluation of its policies and practices. This is
however necessary as such evaluation affects both the substantive and
procedural issues in the labour management relations, especially as
negotiation is influenced by such evaluation.
The manner of handling
collective bargaining, grievance, dispute and implementation of
collective agreement including its review go a r long way to determine
workers satisfaction and dissatisfaction. These in turn influence
workers commitment, performance and eventually organisation outcomes in
either positive or negative way.
That is a climate perceived negatively would result in negative behaviour or less commitment performance in organisation.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
It is the intent of this
study to explore some relationships that exist between the industrial
relations climate and employee satisfaction.
The study will attempt to answer the following questions:
- To investigate the extent to which management is aware of existing industrial relations climate in the organisation.
- To assess the extent to which perceived industrial relations climate influence the direction of labour management relationship.
- To find out how positive industrial relations climate lead to job satisfaction.
- To find out the influence' of industrial relations climate on workers' commitment.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
These are quests that the research seeks to answer. They are as follows:
- To what extent do management measure the rate of industrial relations climate of the organization?
- Why would industrial relations climate perceived as negative lead to strained relations between management and labour?
- To what extent can positive industrial relations climate leads to job dissatisfaction?
- To what extent can industrial relations climate influence organizational commitment among workers?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESE
Ho: management are not likely to regularly measure existing industrial climate in their organization.
HI: management are likely to regularly measure existing industrial climate in their organization.
the direction of perceived industrial relations climate is likely to
be indirectly related to the direction of labour management relations.
the direction of perceived industrial relations climate is likely to be
directly related to the direction of labour management relations.
Ho: a positive industrial relations climate is not likely to lead to job satisfaction among workers.
HI: a positive industrial relations climate is likely to lead to job satisfaction among workers'.
Ho: the direction of industrial relations climate IS indirectly related to the direction of job commitment.
HI: the direction of industrial relations climate IS directly related to the direction of job commitment.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
A sound industrial
relations climate in an organization is essential to a numbers if Issues
which examines the relationships between industrial relations climate
and variables reflecting the state of the firms performance, industrial
relations structure and over all organizational, outcomes.
This study also attempts
to highlight the relationship between the above variables and emphasize
the importance of conceptualizing industrial relations climate in such a
way that can adequately reflect the attitudes and behaviour of
industrial actors. However, it ascertains the direct and indirect
influences of industrial relations climate and other variables under
study on company effectiveness.
Finally, the researcher
will seek to enlighten scholars, managers and leaders in organizations
that the pattern of causality is not simple one but involve reciprocal
and feedback relationship. The improvement to the explanatory power of
the company effectiveness by including the notion of industrial
relations climate is clearly demonstrated.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is limited to
Chevron Nigeria Limited, Lagos, owing to time and cost consideration.
The research will seek to reveal the industrial relations climate on
employee satisfaction in Chevron Nigeria Limited, Lagos.
1.8 BRIEF HISTORY OF CHEVRON CORPORATION
Chevron Corporation is a company founded in California (USA) on the 10th
of September 1879 by a group of oil explorers and merchants; among whom
were Charles N. Felton, Lloyd Tevis and George Loomis. It was then
known as pacific Coast Oil Company. The company has undergone many
mergers and acquisitions to become Chevron Corporation. Some of the
major mergers include the 1984 merger of Standard Oil Company of
California (Social) and Gulf Oil Corporation to become Chevron
Corporation. In October, 9 2001, Chevron Corporation also merged with
Texaco Incorporated to become Chevron Texaco Corporation. A couple of
years later, the name was changed again to Chevron Corporation.
The mission of the company
is to find, produce and sell oil and gas, with a vision of 'being the
global energy company most admired for its people, partnership and
The company is operating
in over 180 countries globally with a workforce of more than 50,000
people worldwide. Chevron Corporation is committed to operational
excellence, and has a high value for safe and reliable performance. The
cardinal values in Chevron Corporation are, integrity, trust, diversity,
ingenuity, partnership, protecting people and the environment and high
performance. The company treasures its diverse workforce and promotes an
all-inclusive - environment. The employees are the most valued assets
of the company. According to the Chairman of Chevron Corporation, Dave
O'Reilly (2008), 'everything at Chevron is secondary to our primary goal
- returning everyone home safe to their families each day.
Chevron Nigeria Limited
(CNL) is a subsidiary of Chevron Corporation, controlling the Nigeria
Mid-Africa Strategic Business Unit (NMA SBU). Chevron Nigeria Limited
has a workforce of approximately one thousand, six hundred (1,600). This
number steadily grew over the years. The rate of employee turnover in
CNL is very minimal with many outsiders striving, to join the workforce.
CNL has equally made giant strides in the financial arena. Its profit
after taxation quadrupled from 2001 - 2005: increasing from
approximately fifteen billion naira (N15 billion) to a little over sixty
eight billion naira (N68billion) respectively.
In view of CNL's success
story, one can reasonably argue that CNL is a successful corporate
performer i.e ability to meet its corporate goals and objectives.
Finally, CNL's corporate
culture is summed in the phrase, 'the Chevron way', which Dave O'Reilly
(2008) explained as "getting results the right way".