research examined the Impact of Occupational Stress on Worker’s Performance
with special reference to Neimenth
International Pharmaceuticals Plc. The research adopted survey research design.
Data were gathered through primary source with the aid of a well-structured
questionnaire. Simple random sampling technique was adopted in the selection of
sample, this was used to eliminate biasness in the selection process of the
Data garnered were presented on table using
percentage and the formulated hypotheses were analysed with the used of
Chi-square statistical method. The result of the analysis shows that
there is significant relationship between deadlines and stress. Also, there is
significant relationship between working conditions and productivity of
employees. And there is significant relationship between job insecurity and
on the conclusion of the analysis recommendations were proffered to the staff
and management of Neimenth
International Pharmaceuticals Plc.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page 1
Table of Content 3
1.0 Introduction 5
1.1 Statement of the
1.2 Objectives of
the Study 9
1.3 Significance of
1.4 Method of the
1.5 Scope of the
1.8 Definition of
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF
THE RELEVANT LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 The Review Literature 14
2.3 The Process of
2.4 Management and
2.5 Management 21
of Occupational Stress 22
of Stress 35
of Stress 38
2.9 Consequence of
2.10 The Cost of
2.11 Stress Management
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH
3.1 Introduction 44
3.2 Research Design 44
3.3 Population of
3.4 Data Collection
3.5 Data Collection
3.6 Method of Data
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULT
Characteristics of the Respondents 48
Perception on Impact of Occupational
Stress on Workers Performance 52
4.4 Test of
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY
OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 68
5.2 Summary of
5.3 Recommendations 70
5.4 Conclusions 71
refers to the measure of efficiency of a given input in producing a given
output. Productivity improvement in the large society or organization has of
recent generated much attention and concern. The success of failure of failure
of an organization largely depend on its level of productivity which may be
high or low depending on several factor (Irukwu, 2001).
(1981), defined stress as “ dynamic
condition in which an individual is
confronted with an opportunity, constraint or
demand related to what he or she
desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both certain and
inter-relationship between the mind and the body is well known as well as the
link between stress and the human health. It is pertinent to know that not all
stress can be both negative and positive and have both effects is bad. Stress
can be both negative and positive and have both effects respectively. Infact
stress is essential for human survival. A minimum amount of stress does not
discriminate by sex, age or class. It affects everyone in all classes of the
in organizations experience a lot of demand and pressure. These demand and
pressure are often conflicting. Pressure emerges everyday in the course of work
which causes a lot of stress on people. It is therefore necessary to understand
the nature of stress, how people respond to it, its consequences and how
control or manage it.
to Oharei and Odejide, 1991 Stress can be seen as “the biological response to
events that threatens to overwhelm the individual capacity to cope
satisfactorily in the environment. It
can also be seen that there is a potential for stress when an environment is
perceived as presenting a demand that threatens to exceed the person’s
capabilities and resources for meeting it under conditions here he expected a
substantial differential in the regards and cost from meeting the demand versus
not meeting it. This is to say that the
causes of stress can be found not only within the environment but also within
the individual. In the addition, the
interaction of both can cause stress.
etal, (1990), defined psychological stress as a “particular relationship
between a person and the environment that is appraised or perceived by the
person as taking exceeding his or her resources and endangering his or her
well-being. The perception of stress is
the part to whether the person or individual experiences stress or not. This is the treason why what an individual
considers as stress may not be stress to the other person.
and Marshal (1976), defined occupational stress as negative environmental
factors or stress associated with a particular job. Stress is very common in the workplace than
in other aspect of life. However, it is
pertinent to know that the work environment can pose as a danger to the health
and well being or workers. Satter et al,
1990 stated that “the work environment is a threat or risk factor with regards
to the physical health and safety of workers.
Occupational stress may result due to lack of co-operation or harmony
between a worker and his work environment.
The work environment an individual is exposed to have a relative effect
on his health, social and psychological needs and also to enhance the quality
of life of such a person.
adverse effects of occupational stress can lead to either Behavioural,
Psychological or even semantic problems.
Responses to such behaviour could be insomnia, dizziness, fatigue,
headache, frustration, anger, fear, aggression, hyperactivity etc. Other possible response of long term stress
could be arthritis, ulcer, and constipation, susceptibility to disease or
infection, backaches, heart problems, appetite loss, indigestion, increased
blood pressure. These physical disorders
would culminate in some familiar emotional problems such as marital strife,
sexual problems, excessive drinking, and eating junk food instead of meals.
mentioned earlier the anxiety on the part of workers to meet up with
expectations or target put them under so much pressure which will eventually
lead to stress and consequently inadequate performance. Several other factors causes occupational
stress such as work overload, Role conflict Deadlines, Poor working conditions,
it is however important for individuals to know about personal stress control
or management and also 5the organization to put in place mechanism for
organizational stress management.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
research work is necessary now than every considering the rate of environmental
hazards that employees are exposed to daily, the condition of work, the quality
of food people consume, due to longer hours at work which over expose them to
the study will focus on occupational stress can be controlled and managed in
Neimeth Pharmaceuticals Plc. As it is
recorded to be a determinant of occupational performance in productivity
thereby causing disturbances at work.
problems such as failure of companies in providing health Insurance scheme for
their workforce, high rate of job insecurity, the setting of unrealistic
deadlines, improper working conditions and absence of counseling department in
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
study will give explanation to the impact of occupational stress on workers
performance and how it can be managed.
The objectives of the study will be the following:
The study will reveal the causes of
occupational stress and its impact on workers performance.
Investigate if there is provision for
medical insurance policy for every worker.
Ascertain whether realistic deadlines
are being set and if targets are met.
Find out if there is proper working
condition available to workers and if counseling is readily available to them
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
the purpose of this research work, these are the questions:
Do you think deadlines can be linked
Does working conditions have a role to
play in stress?
Do you think job insecurity is not one
of the factors that cause stress?
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
There is no significant relationship
between deadlines and stress.
There is no significant relationship
between working conditions and productivity of employees.
There is no significant relationship
between job insecurity and stress.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
importance of this research work is in the following areas:
It will enable the management of
Neimeth International Pharmaceuticals Plc and other companies to know the
implication of occupational stress on workers performance and dhow to recognize
and control it.
It will reveal the gains to be derived
from having Medical Insurance Scheme.
It will help to show that proper
working conditions can help to control stress.
It will reveal the need for proper
staff canteen in organizations.
The study will reveal if truly
occupational stress can be managed effectively.
1.6 METHOD OF THE STUDY
method of data collection to be adopted in this research study will be the use
of both primary and secondary data collection source. The primary data will be through the use of a well structured questionnaire that would be
personally administered. The secondary
source is through the use of textbooks, journals, articles and library. The hypotheses will be analyzed using the
chi-square to determine or not a relationship exists between the variables.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
study shall concentrate on the impact of occupational stress on workers
performance. The research will however
limit its study to Neimeth Pharmaceuticals Plc in Ikeja, Lagos state.
The questionnaire shall be strictly limited to the staff of the company.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Distress: This is dysfunctional for individuals
Eurostress: This is a positive type of stresses that
energized or makes superior effort possible.
Performance: It can be described
as how well or badly an individual does his work.
Personality: It is the distinctive
patterns of behaviour including thoughts and emotions that characterize each
individual’s adaptation to the situation of his or her own life.
Pressure: The difficulties and
feelings of anxiety that are caused by the need to achieve or behave in a
Productivity: The measure of the efficiency
of a given resource input such as labour or capital in producing a given
Stress: It is a state of tension experienced by
individuals facing extra-ordinary demands, constraints and opportunities.