This study is titled the
impact of manpower planning on employee productivity. The aim is to
examine roles planning by planning of manpower on employee productivity.
This study was carried out at Oxford University 'Press, Ibadan. Total
number of 100 questionnaires was administered on survey population and
simple percentage was used to analyses the gathered information.
The researcher concluded
from his finding that: (i) Organization must be. Conscious about
staffing level,' (ii) that organization should consider how long a
particular job would exist (iii) That organization must invest in
developing and maintaining the skills of its entire workforce, not only a
few people at the top and that the nature of the reward system must be
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Scope of the study
1.4 Methods and sources of data collection
1.5 Data Collection Methods
1.7 For Description
1.8 The subject matter
1.9 Inadequacies of other methods
1.10 Sampling methods
1.11 Design and administration of Questionnaire
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Literature review
2.2 Theoretical framework
2.3 The second theory of motivation hygiene theory
2.4 Human resources cycle
2.6 Performance appraisal
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research design
3:2 Data collection method
3.3 Population studied
3.4 University Press Pic
3.5 Organizational structure of university press PIc
3.6 Manpower planning
3.8 Performance appraisal
3.10 Manpower development and training
4.0 Data analysis and
4.1 Performance appraisal
5.1 Observation, recommendation conclusion
Manpower planning may be
defined as the strategy for acquisition, utilization, improvement and
preservation of an enterprise's human resources in order to achieve an
organization's goals and objectives.
Once a company has
developed a long range strategy known as "Corporate Planning", it
becomes possible to estimate the number of people of all types and
categories that may be required over the following years. At the time
that these estimates are made, some companies take the opportunity to
review their staffing criteria as well as the mere members required in
each category. Thus, it may desirable to evaluate the performance of men
with different qualifications who have been doing the same job over a
period of time. Any conclusion arrived at would be taken into
consideration when preparing a long-term Manpower plan.
Also, Manpower planning is
functionally, indicating how many employees ought to be selected,
trained, promoted, retired, dismissed and so on over the following years
and hence, an estimate of the personnel facilities that will be
required can be made. The factors that are usually taken into
consideration in making up Manpower plan includes:
- The changing nature of business.
- The rate of retirement and other causes of staff lose.
- Changes in social employment conditions.
- Changes in education.
- Changes in job condition
- Changes in company's organization.
- Promotion pattern.
Personnel or labour is
considered an essential factor in the production of goods and services,
for its need to blamed (with) other factors of production or inputs
appropriately for optimal productivity.
Labour, under the
capitalist system is a means of workers existence, provided the worker
is prepared to sell his "labour power" to the capitalist, otherwise he
belongs to the unemployment market.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Labour is the most crucial
of all the factors production, of its operationally defective, the
organization sustains a vicious cycle of ineffective and inefficient
management procedure with resultant macro effect on the level of
productivity. In his words, A.K Ubeku 1975 noted:
The Manpower requirement
of any organization has to be planned for just as we budget Economic
purposes. In a dynamic situation like the one in which we are now find
ourselves in this Country, no Organization can grow effectively unless
the functions of Manpower planning are carried out effectively. Some
organizations without well-established personnel department fall into
the error of looking for staff as when necessary. This is bad
management. In every aspect of running a business, forward looking
should be the rule, and this is even more important when we talk about
adequate Manpower and the right type of Manpower in a country like
Nigeria where Managerial and technical skills are few.
The derivation from
standard manpower planning system with resultant effect on productivity
led by a study carried out by Kalby (1980) on "Nigeria Worker". It
emerged as an established fat that "The Nigerian worker is capable of
producing as much as his counterparts in Europe or Asia but for some
limiting factors which are functions of management inadequacies". Also,
in the National development plan, the problem of manpower gap has been
repeatedly predicted. In the light of the above -identified problems and
the relevance of efficient manpower planning to productivity, this
study wants to examine the extent to which effective manpower planning
can eliminate the problem of manpower gap as well as the attainment of
the goals and objectives of the company.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
- The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of man power planning on employee productivity.
- To examine the human cycles, which are four generic human
resources functions. There are recruitment/selection,
performance/Appraisal, Rewards and Development as necessary steps
towards filing the manpower gap which is cankerworm eating deep into the
fabrics of productivity. While conducting the study into the above
aspects of manpower planning at University Press PIc, Ibadan, the
researcher has the following objectives in focus:
- Determine how the organization attains and maintains at the
minimum cost, the equality and quantity of manpower requirement to
satisfy the manpower needs of the company.
- Determine how the company is able to anticipate the problems
arising from potential over or under supply of manpower needs from the
- Examine the corporate policies on vertical and horizontal
mobility of personnel towards the enhancement of the corporate goals and
It is hoped that the study
will generate further research into this important area of human
resources and also to contribute to a general understanding of labour in
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work on
University Press PIc., Ibadan, and a publisher in Nigeria is to examine
the management tools with a view to assessing the level of manpower gap.
The study population includes the management, senior, intermediate and
junior members of staff. The respondents include the Executive Director,
Departmental Managers or Controllers, Intermediate and Junior members
of staff of various units within the company.
1.5 METHODS AND SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION
It is important to mention
the sources of data collection and method of collection for this
project. The choice is predicted on pragmatic consideration especially
in view of the constraints posed by limited time and inadequacy of other
resources necessary to conduct research of this nature. The title of
this research precluded that the project was primarily designed to be a
case study of not just a company. But mainly, a fundamental phenomenon
out of the whole gamut of human resources/personnel functions at any
corporate person. Therefore, adequate efforts have been made to
highlight the research problem/objectives which is "Manpower Gap" -
evidence of defective human resources functions at University Press Pic.
Three basic data collection techniques namely: participant observation,
structured interview/questionnaire and document analysis are utilized.
1.6 DATA COLLECTION
Scope of the study:
University Press PIc has it’s headquarter in Ibadan. It has area offices
or zonal operational offices in Zaria/Kano, Jos, Owerri, Lagos and
Benin with average of 17 members of staff in each zone. The head office
is comprising of Administrations/Human Resources, Finance, Publishing,
Distribution and Marketing Departments with average of 19 senior
personnel and an average of 23.4 junior personnel per department.
The research was conducted
in the head office, Ibadan in the Administration Human Resources
Department. Due to constraints imposed by time and cost, the research is
restricted to the head office only. However, this was considered
suitable for the fact that 212 or 69.5% of the total work force of 305
(as at march 2001) are in Ibadan.
Visits were made to all
the departments including the company's guesthouse. Interpersonal
relationship was created which aided the collection of data from the
chosen member of personnel.
PARTICIPANT OBSERVATIONAL METHOD
methods may be used in laboratory or field research, this work carried
out under naturalistic settings is considered better carried on
participant observational method.
method is used in this study because of naturalistic consideration of
the project. Karl Weick (1968) defined observational method as "the
selection, provocation, recording and encoding of that set of behaviours
and settings concerning organisms 'in situ' which is consistent with
Weick was careful to
explain each term in his definition. By selection, Weick meant to
emphasize that specific observer’s edit or focus their research
observations in both intentional and unintentional ways. This selection
can affect what is observed, what is recorded and what conclusions are
drawn from the data.
In introducing provocation
into the definition of observational methods, recognized the important
relationship between experimental intervention and observational
methods. Traditionally, a bystander has conceived observational methods
as an unobtrusive and passive recoding. Like Weick, (1968) he argued
that passivity is not inherent in observational methodology. The
observer should be able to modify the research setting without
destroying its naturalness. For example, a worker of different sex can
be introduced into a maintenance crew or children may be moved from a
quiet play area to a noisy one. Thus observational research can and
should be experimental as well as correlational in nature. In including
recording and encoding in his definition, Weick, (1968) emphasized that
much of observational research consists of recording events through the
use of field notes, category systems or other means. Encoding is the
process of simplifying these records through some data reduction method
such as counting frequency of different behaviours or activities.
Including "that set of
behaviours and settings concerning organisms" in the definition is meant
to communicate the fact that most observational research uses a number
of different measures of behavior obtained in a variety of settings from
both animal and human subjects. Weick (1969) admitted that the phrase
"In situ" was the most difficult to define. It is meant to refer to
those situations in which the participants spend most of their time or
which are familiar to them. Williams (1969) faced the same difficulty in
attempting to define naturalistic research. He concluded that the word
naturalistic describes the research or method rather than phenomenon
under investigation. Thus, it is important to specify the investigator's
activities rather than the subject matter studied that is, one can
study behaviours at a cocktail party or in a doctor's waiting room by
observing interaction or by interviewing the participants. The former
would be a naturalistic method but the latter would not. In addition,
the introduction of experimental manipulations would not necessarily
make the method "less natural".
Finally, by empirical
aims, Weick, (1968) emphasized the variety of functions observational
methods can serve. They can be used also for description, hypothesis or
theory generation or hypothesis or theory testing.
The justification for the
choice of participant or observational methods in conducting the
research could be categorized into three classes as shown below:
- F or Description
- The Subject Mater
- Inadequacies of other methods.
1.9 FOR DESCRIPTION
One of the major reasons
for using an observational method is that it can tell us a great deal
about behavioral patterns. This purely descriptive aspect of behavior
has been neglected by most social sciences Barker (1968); (Williams and
Raush 1969). In contrast, the physical sciences have descriptive
handbooks of phenomenon they study. Chemistry has descriptive data
concerning the properties of chemicals, biology devotes considerable
resources to providing descriptions of fauna and flora, and of course
astronomy is almost entirely based upon observation and description.
Yet, very little descriptive material exist in the social sciences.
Descriptive materials not only provide information concerning what types
of behaviours are found under what circumstances but also aids in the
selection of problems and hypothesis without sufficient descriptive
materials, erroneous selection and inference can easily be made.
Barker's (1968) conclusion was that researchers could often be led to
investigate a phenomenon that may not exist or may be of little
importance outside the laboratory. Thus, the use of descriptive records
of behavior, as it occurs in situ, could possibly help avid these types
1.10 THE SUBJECT MATTER
Often, observation may be
the only feasible method by which to gather data. Individual may be
unwilling to cooperate with the researchers: even with cooperative
interviewers if the researcher does not know the subject's jargon or
language, interviews as an alternative system will be difficult to
conduct. Observation of the individuals' behavior would usually not be
impeded by the difficulties. In similar fashion, the social scientist
may be investigated in the laboratory.
Research about the
efficiency of human resources administrators would be difficult to stage
in the laboratory. Even if it were possible, ethical problems created
by placing intense stress upon subjects would not permit such
experiments. Instead, observation of people's behavior could be studied
at the office of human resources officers. While being present when such
an event occurs is indeed difficult, social scientists have been
successful in this type of research. The researcher on participant
observational method of research has the additional advantage of
recording on going behaviours as it occurs
1.11 INADEQUACIES OF OTHER METHODS
Criticism of many of the
other research methodologies centres in the concept of internal
validity. Banana and Hunch (1972) and Cook and Diamond (1976) presented
evidence that indicates that filed research provides more generalizable
results than do other methodologies. They noted that laboratory research
suffers from problems of demand. Characteristics, Campbell (1969) not
found in many well-designed observational studies.
Laboratory situation may
be thought of as unique social settings involving interactions between
persons called subject and other persons called experiments. Critics see
this setting as one that does not lead to generalizable results. Oren
(1962) was among the first to note subjects participating in laboratory
studies appeared to be motivated to figure out the purpose of the
research and to "help" the experimenter by confirming the hypothesis.
Oren himself hypothesized that the subjects used the cues provided by
the experimental procedure to determine the purpose of study. Subsequent
research (Rosenberg, 1969); Sigall, Aronson, and Van Hoose, (1970)
indicated that subjects in a laboratory experiment tend to behave in
ways which will make them look good. Clearly subjects in laboratory
studies, just as those had been interviewed, are aware that their
behaviours are under scrutiny. One way to reduce the manifestation of
such demand characteristics is to conduct the study in the field. In
many occasions subjects observed in the field are not aware of their
roles as "subjects". Yet in many field observation studies the subject
are cognizant of the fact that their behaviour is brief studied. The
latter type of study is subject to the same difficulties of
interpretation as the other method. It is for this reason that
unobstructive or disguised observational studies in the field are
A second major problem
associated with non-observational methods lies in the difficulty in
making predictions about real world behaviour. A good example of this
problem is in the use of attitude surveys, which are probably the most
frequently used social science method. Attitude surveys rally almost
entirely on verbal self-reports which appear to be poor predictors of
behaviour in situations. Abelson's (1972): Liska (1975): Sedrest, (1969)
and Wicker (1969). It would be worry to leave this work with the
impression that it is impossible to predict behaviour from attitudes.
Recent advances in this field Fishbein and Ajzen, (1975) have suggested
that the expectation that attitudes should directly predict behaviour
was overly simplistic.
1.12 SAMPLING METHODS
As the scope of the
research was restricted to Ibadan Head Office only, the population of
the study is selected by non-probability accidental sampling method on
survey population of 50% of the total work force. The senior members of
staff study population is about two - fifth (2/5) hence 20% of the
senior staff and 30% of the junior staff making up 37 and 69 semi and
junior staff study population respectively. The nature of the research
restricted the sample population to the company's employees who are
Directors, Senior Staff or Junior Staff. The members of management are
inclusive because comparative analysis of their response in
questionnaire with other employees would shed light on the perception of
management to the problem of "manpower gap". However, new employers
whose appointments were not yet confirmed, other categories of temporary
employees such as Industrial attaches and Youth Corps members were
excluded from the sample population.
Secondary sources of data used are:
- Questionnaire: A set of objective questions and one
free comment question was administered to the University Press PIc,
Personnel. This was the major source of data that are directly relevant
to the study's objective.
- Structured interview: Direct interviews of some
management personnel including the Managing Director was done. This
proved an efficient way of eliciting information from the directors and
- The use of company's records, internal memos published papers and magazines.
1.13 DESIGN AND ADMINISTRATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE
Questionnaire is one of
the sources used for data collection in this research work. Since the
survey method was adopted, the design of the questionnaire was
categorized on respondent personal data and the normative model of job
satisfaction which is one of the major areas this study seeks to
investigate as leading question to the problem of manpower gap: Mixture
of dichotomous and multi choice questions were used. This was to allow
the access to detailed and accurate data. Control questions were
injected into the questionnaire in order to check the respondent's
consistency in answering the questions. The questionnaire comprised of
38 questions with an accompanying letter.
The questionnaire is structured
- Section A for personal data, academic qualification and recruitment exercise contained in 21 questions.
- Section B comprised 17 questions based on knowledge of the company's management style, job satisfaction and productivity.
- Section C is free comment
Non probability sampling
method whereby the researcher simply reached out and took the cases that
were at hand continued the processed until the sample read - the
designated group of population per department. The researcher
administered the questionnaire on
20% senior members of
staff and 30% junior categories of the population size. Table below shed
more light on the choice of correspondents.