The Nigerian Local Government system has
been fraught with a lot of problems since its inception in the colonial
days. This is informed due to the various reforms that has been carried
out by successive governments both at colonial and post impendence era.
Despite these reform the Local
Government has been characterized by low productivity corruption
ineptitude and low morale to work. The Surulere Local Government Council
is not an exception.
Motivation of staff is a pivot to
productivity of nay organization. Therefore, it becomes necessary to
motivate workers to enable them work assiduously towards the goals and
objectives of the organization. Ovation may not necessary be monetary
compensation but also favourable condition of service which may not be
quantified in terms of monetary value for the staff.
During the research, it was observed
that there is deficiency of studies on motivation and productivity in
respect of Public Service organization. This shortage may be explained
by the fact that Public Service has been viewed to be an organization
that cannot be productive.
The propose of concentrating on staff
welfare scheme as a motivating tool for productivity in the Local
Government is justified by the fact that a good staff welfare package
would attract good caliber of workers to such organization thereby
enhancing its productivity.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page 1
Table of content 3
1.1 Background of the Study 5
1.2 Statement of Problem 9
1.3 Objectives of the Study 11
1.4 Hypothesis Formulation 11
1.5 Limitation of the Study 12
1.6 Justification of Study 12
1.7 Scope / Setting of Study 13
1.8 Research Methodology 14
1.9 Theoretical Frame Work 15
2.1 Definition of Terms 17
2.2 Motivation, Staff Welfare Scheme and the
Public Service 20
2.3 The Real Need for Staff Welfare Scheme
in an Organization 22
2.4 Personnel Policy in The Civil Service 23
2.5 Performance and Productivity 25
2.6 Efficiency and Effectiveness 26
2.7 Employee Welfare and Welfare System 31
3.0 Introduction 36
3.1 Types and Sources of Relevant data 36
3.2 Questionnaires 36
3.3 Documentary 37
3.4 Interview 37
3.5 Questionnaires Administration 38
3.5.1 Problems of Questionnaires Administration 38
3.6 Techniques of Data Analysis 39
4.1 Introduction 40
4.2 Age Distribution 41
4.3 Employee’s Monthly Income (Basic Pay) 42
4.4 Academic Qualification 43
4.5 Duration of Stay in the Organization 44
4.6 Cadres in Surulere Local Government Area 45
4.7 Perception of Adequacy of Transport Allowance 46
4.8 Perception on Punctuality to the Office 47
4.9 State of Health on Reaching the Office 48
4.10 Housing Scheme / Allowance 49
4.11 Perception on Adequacy of Medical Allowance 50
4.12 Perception of Respondent on Condition of the
Office Cooling System. 51
4.13 Perception on Provision on Modern Office
4.14 Perception on Provision of staff Canteen 54
4.15 Staff Promotion 55
Summary of finding, recommendations and conclusion
5.1 Summary of Findings 56
5.2 Recommendations 58
5.3 Conclusion 62
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Human resources is easily recognized as
the most important of the resources required for the production of good
and services. It is the key to rapid social economic development and
efficient services delivery. Without adequately, skilled and well
motivated work force operating within a sound human resources management
programme, productivity will be slow and development not possible. A
civil service that underrates this crucial role and underplays the
importance of people in goal achievement can neither be effective nor
productive (Ndiomu 1999:6).
It is a universally altruism that there
is a correlation between motivated employee and productivity. It goes to
say that organization with highly motivated manpower has the potentials
for high productivity while organization with manpower that is
de-motivated tends to affects its productivity. It is obvious, therefore
that there can be no productivity without manpower with job
satisfaction and development as motivating factors.
In other words job enrichment and
enlargement in any organization are concerned with the quality of work
life. This involves the provision of a conductive environment free from
physical harm, adverse psychological effects stress, burnout, etc.
Results therefore will depend on the establishment for the full
development of people. Therefore there is an interface between the
motivated employees and the salary fringe benefits and super annulations
on the one hand and productivity has become necessary to enhance it, so
that employees are encouraged to identify with and be committed to the
objective of the organization. (Asieegbu 1991:148).
It is interesting to note that in the
productive work force of any nation, those who have innate interest in
the work they do and takes, pride in being able to do that work well and
in a minimum amount of time, without urging from others to conduct
themselves in an efficient manner are always very few.
Such employees constitute a very small
proportion of the workforce of any organization. Therefore, the bulk of
its employees must be induced to minimize avoidable delays to adhere to
prescribed methods of work and maintain satisfactory pace (Mullins
Since irrespective of its capital know
how, an organization depends (for its success on its human resources.
The more satisfied the employees are and the more readily the
organization identifies and satisfies the employees needs, the more
willing the employees are to put in efforts that get the job done
(Ajileye 1999: 153).
The need for good motivation package as a
way of securing and retaining competent workers in the Civil service
had always reflected in the reports of the various commission set up to
update police: and practices of Public Service personnel in Nigeria
(Harigis (1946) Gorsuch 1955, Mbanefo (1959) Morgan (1954) Elwood (1966)
Adebo 91971) and Udoji
The relationship between organization
and its member is governed by what motivates them to work and fulfilment
they derive from it. The local government commission needs to know how
best to elicit the cooperation of staff and direct their performance to
achieving the goals and objective of the local government. The chairman
must understand the nature of human behaviour and how best to motivate
staff as that they can work willingly and effectively (Mullins Ibdi).
The productivity (efficiency) and
effectiveness of civil Service personnel whether federal, State or local
government has always been the subejct6 of discussion, particularly
when comparing it with the private sector. Along this argument the Civil
service has received more battered. This is not unconnected with the
various reforms since 1976 till date. Every government has been
concerned with the low performance of the local government
The essence of those reforms is to
reduce absenteeism and tardiness, increase the quality of output reduce
the occurrence of avoidable delays in achieving their set goals and
objectives, reduce corruption amongst others. Therefore in achieving
these laudable objectives more especially in the local government, the
present Obasanjo administration led reform (July, 2003) should consider
the personnel below average performance level against the backdrop of
other vital resources available to the local government personnel i.e
office accommodation, materials and equipment especially technological
support viz-a-viz social welfare scheme available to them.
It is not uncommon to find two senior
management staff say grade level 13 officers sharing a small room so
small that they would be breathing directly into each other’s noses. An
expectation of high level of performance under such condition would be
unattainable. The situation as regards the availability of materials and
simple technological machines like the computer, telephones which could
facilitate and enhances performance in even much more must not be
neglected by the local Government Commission. The situation of housing
and transportation in a city like Lagos is very hazardous and
precarious. What effort has the local government management made to
ameliorate the suffering of their staff in Lagos
Nevertheless, this research work is
based on the Surulere Local Government personnel’s and the aspect of
motivation which we seek to address is the non financial aspect. This is
the provision of social welfare packages and fringe benefits as a pivot
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Local Government system in Nigeria dates
backs to the British colonial authority and this was inherited by a
sovereign Nigeria state in October 1960. Since inception, the local
government system as been fraught with inefficiency and ineffectiveness.
To buttress this is the avalanche of reforms since independence that
have taken place all in view to reposition local government in the
administration of the grassroots Dasuki (1976) and Ndayako (2003). The
expectation was that the third tier of government would act as a
catalyst of rapid and sustainable development but what have been seen is
a unworkable local government characterized by corruption, efficiency
and unproductiveness since the 1976 reforms.
The creation of more local government by
previous governments in Nigeria to ameliorate these problems has not
help matters. At the root of this instability and unproductiveness,
however, is the fact that Nigeria itself has been undergoing rapid
socio-economic development which ahs require the building of new forms
of organizations that will face the challenges that tray its path.
Form the interrogation of historical
context, and nature of the problems of local government in Nigeria a
number of point have emerged. One is that the system of local government
has been highly experimental and unstable (Guardian 2003:74). In the
post independence period the system has been subjected to reforms and
several models have been experimented with ostensibly in the search for
efficiency and effective form of local government.
The Nigerian local government system is
also facing acute financial crisis despite the receipt of 20 percent and
35 percent from the federation account and Vat respectively . Majority
of industrial conflicts in local government today boarders on unpaid
salary and fringe benefits and lack of adequate inceptive. This projects
is led to investigate the fundamental question of work value in Local
Government Work has lost its challenges to many workers at the local
government level since there is non-availability of funds to take care
of their needs. In the face of this, how can we talk about productivity
when the local government cannot motivate its workers to work?
Consequently the following research questions are pertinent guide for
What are the various motivation techniques? How effective are this instrument of productivity in local government?
How can local government work force as a non-profit organization can be productive?
What would the government do to make career in local government service is attractive?
How can the staff of the local government be made productive like their counterpart in private organizations?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The specific objectives of this research work are as follows:
- To identify the factors that causes low productivity in Surulere local government.
- To highlight the consequences and implication of a due motivated
staff to social and economic development of Surulere Local Government
- To suggest the importance of Staff welfare scheme to productivity.
- To suggest practice measures on how to improve on the staff welfare,
if need be, of the personnel of the Surulere local government
1.4 HYPOTHESES FORMULATION
In line with the research questions raised above the following hypotheses are formulated.
The more motive a worker is the more productive an organization is.
The more job satisfaction a workforce gets the more productive it becomes.
The more focused the goals and objectives of an organization the more the workforce will achieve its goals.
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Since the information available on
government activities is always scanty and fragmentary it may be
difficult and at times, even unfair, to draw general conclusions. In the
first place, there is no plan setting out in clear terms the objectives
and goals to be achieved by Surulere local government. Secondly there
are some problems regarding the laying down of standards of government
activities against which actual performance is to be measured and
compare. Thirdly it has not been easily to collect data from government
organizations and other related agencies operating in the same locality
and providing service of similar nature, so as to give an indication of
relative efficiency and effectiveness of different service agencies.
Views expressed here would therefore be regarded as suffering from these
basic constraints and imperfections.
1.6 JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY
There is no doubt that the reforms of
local government system currently going on the Obasanjo led
administration is due to the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of
actualizing its goals and objectives as a third tier government. The
gravity of they situation could be seen from the huge resources so far
pumped into the local government system (20 percent and 35 percent from
the federation account and VAT respectively) and the
mal-administration at the grass root level where corruption and
ineptitude by workers have become the order of the day. The consequences
of all these on the national political life is certainly grievous.
In a development country like Nigeria,
which is seriously searching for economic growth and development
allowing the workforce demolished due to non payment of salary and
compensation in the local government system, would likely not only make
it difficult to get out of the conditions of underdevelopment but also
hinder the attainment of the much cherished stable polity that can allow
for the development of the grass roots the absence of concise study of
the problem of unproductively in local government service which could
provide appropriating ground for a policy design and a possible
invention programme is a matter of concern. Here lies the significance
of this study and it justification, which is basically to generate
knowledge in this problem area and attempt to proffer solutions.
1.7 SCOPE /SETTING OF STUDY
The study is on the Surulere local
government in Lagos State. Lagos State alone accommodates over 5% of
Nigeria’s total population of over 120 million and its very rapid growth
in a mega city like Lagos in the last three decades become interesting
for any social research.
There are twenty local government areas in Lagos as a September, 2003. One of the local government is Surulere local government.
Surulere local government was created on 27th
August 1992, it was carved out of the Mainland local government Notable
area of the local government area are, Ojuelegba, Lawson, Ijnesha, Bode
Thomas. Orile, Igammu industrial layout and Adeniran Ogunsanya.
The council also houses federal and
state housing estates at Iponri and Lawson which provides accommodation
for both the upper and middle class.
1.8 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The research methodology that will be
sued are both the primary and secondary data. The primary data will be
sourced through questionnaires would be distributed amongst the work
force of Surulere local government. The distribution will be among the
six departments Administration Health; Finance and Planning, Information
and Engineering. Also interview will be conducted amongst some senior
management officers from grade level ten (10) and above.
The quantitative techniques to be
adopted is the simple percentage analysis., using the programme and
performance budgeting system (P.P.B.S)
While the secondary data will be based
on content analysis of text, journals, magazines and New Papers comments
in relation to local government system in Nigeria.
1.9 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
There are many competing theories which
attempts to exampling the nature of motivation. These theories are all
at least partially true, and all help to explain the behaviour of
certain people at certain times. However, the search for a generalized
theory of motivation at work place appear to be elusive (Mullins Ibid:
414). Handy (1993:16) suggest that the search for definitive solution to
the motivation problems is another endless quest for the Holy Grial in
or organization theory.
It is because of the complexity of
motivation and the fait that there is no ready made solution or single
answer to what motivates people to work well that the different theories
are important to the manager (Mullins Ibid) they shows there which
influences people’s behaviour and performance. Collectively, the
different theories provide a framework within which to direct attention
to problem of how best to motivate staff work willingly and effectively.
Nevertheless these study is based on
professor Abraham Maslow (1954) motivation theory. To him, man’s need
are hierarchical. First there ware physiological needs; there are need
for safety and protection’s third there are need for companionship
affection, and love relationships in the family, work group and
community, forth these are needs for respect, social standing and esteem
as gained through achievement and through recognition by others; Fifth,
there are needs for self actualization which is the filament of one’s
potentialities. According to Maslow, there is no line of demarcation
between each level of needs but generally, when a man gratifies the
first level of needs, the second level becomes more important to him,
and so on, Abraham Maslow accepted the fact that his theory of hierarchy
of needs may not be valid for person with different.