1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The success or failure of any
educational system whether in developed or developing nations of the
world depends to a large extent on the teachers. Teachers are the hub of
the educational system and it has been generally agreed that no
education system can rise above the level of its teachers. There is no
doubt that the services of the teachers are indispensable and critical
to the nation’s future and the quality of individuals the society wants.
But the ability and effectiveness of teachers in discharging their
professional duties could be influenced by a lot of factors among which
is motivation which is one of the most important factors in human
resource management today. Teachers need proper motivation to enhance
their effectiveness not only by extrinsic rewards but also by intrinsic
reward, Akpan (2013).
Motivation appears to be the urge,
impetus inspiration, incentive and ego booster that energize a teacher
(in this case) towards performing certain duties as required by him in
order to meet the stated aims and objectivities of the firm (Robbins,
2000). Patrick (2013) refers to motivation as an act that causes a
person to act or to do something. Olabaji (2007) views motivation as an
incentive which incites, inspires and promotes the desire for the
individual in learning. It is an inner drive which makes a person to
work hard, encourage him to feel that he is part of an organization to
which he belong and that his efforts are appreciated. Motivation is a
factor required in the realization of the objectives of Education in
Nigerian schools. Inadequate use of motivation therefore may go a long
way in negatively affecting the performance of business education
Many contributions and studies
have been carried on organizational efficiency and seem to posit that
motivation seems to promote workers’ performance. Whether in the form of
wages, piecework (getting paid for units produced at a certain quality
level) or any other incentive pay, bonuses, stock options, company-paid
insurance, or any of the other things that may be given to people for
performance, money is important; it could also mean status or power. For
some people money will always be of the utmost importance, while for
others it may never be. It is probably quite true that in most kinds of
businesses and in enterprises money is used as a means of keeping an
organization adequately staffed and not primarily as a motivator. People
in various positions, even though at a similar level, must be given
salaries and bonuses that reflect their individual performances. The way
to ensure that money has meaning, as a reward for accomplishment and as
a way of giving people pleasure from accomplishment, is to base
compensation as much as possible on performance (koontz and
Weihrich,1990; Edwin, 1993).
Mefun (2012) viewed factors
responsible for poor performances of teachers in business education as
non-payment of salaries, delay in promotions, inadequate funds for
seminars and workshops. Different people are motivated by different
things so it is important to make sure that you offer the right
incentives to the right member of the team. According to Fayana (2002)
the relationship between motivation and performance seems to be
powerful that some people equate the cause of performance or lack of it
in organizations to the level of motivation. A high level of performance
seems to be attributed to a high level of motivation, and if
performance is low, it is assumed that motivation is low as well. It is
generally accepted that having targets to work towards, as long as they
are realistic, is one of the most effective ways of improving
performance. Hitting targets improves morale and self-confidence but
remember that those who consistently underachieve will end up feeling
demotivated. Target achievement can be rewarded not only with financial
incentives but perhaps with the offer of increased responsibility or
Yusufu(2004) said that lateness to
school, teacher absenteeism, poor environmental sanitation and dirty
classrooms, shabbily dressed teachers, strained teacher-principal
relationship, disrespect for school heads, poor student-teacher
relationship, Lack of personal professional commitment to duty and
unreadiness for service and sacrifice in general are due to lack of
motivation for teachers and students. Ajeji (2010) said that poor
performance of students arising from improper assignment of duties to
teachers. poor personnel policy resulting in undefined promotional
policy and confusion in the chain of command, Human elements such as
various feelings, desires, perceptions, motives, values which an
individual brings to the school, Family factors caused by poor parental
upbringing of the students.
All these issues call for research
efforts, so as to bring to focus how an appropriate reward package can
jeer up or influence workers to develop positive attitude towards their
job and thereby increase their attitude to work and performance.
In the words of Leon (2013), many
organizations are getting keener on spending the right way, recognizing
the right employees in the right position for the right performance.
Successful employee’s motivation programmers do not need to be
elaborate. It can be as simple as a personalized thank you letter for a
job well done give to the employee for going above and beyond
expectations. Employees like to be acknowledged and nothing beats this
saying “thank you for a job well done’’ in writing which comes better
when accompanied by the company’s token of appreciation. This little
appreciation goes a long way in inducing employees to put more effort
towards achieving enhanced performance through employee loyalty. It is
on this background that this study is aimed at evaluating the effect of
motivation on performance of business education teachers.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The performance of organization
and employee motivation has been the focus of intensive research effort
in recent times. It is very common in our education system to find
candidates with relatively superior qualifications and adequate
professional degrees getting employed into the teaching profession, yet
the problem of deteriorating standards both qualitatively and
quantitatively appears to be on the increase in our schools. It becomes
imperative to find out what may have been responsible for the continued
decline in standards. Could it be that teachers, in spite of their
superior professional qualifications, may not have been satisfied with
their job, or not being well motivated?
It has been observed that poor
remuneration is related to profits made by organizations. Other factors
responsible for poor performances of teachers includes non-payment of
salaries, delay in promotions, inadequate funds for seminars and
workshops breeds lack of commitment and low productivity. In addition,
demoralizing to teachers and consequently reduced their performance.
Although Job enrichment deals with
creating a work that includes a greater variety of content,
necessitating a higher level of knowledge and skill and providing the
employee with more autonomy and responsibility for planning, directing
and controlling his job. The Nigerian educational system hardly enjoy
the feeling of personal responsibility for their outputs and an
opportunity for teachers to help plan their work objectives, make
decisions on how to do the work, and experience personal growth due to
Given the intense
competition in the business environment, there seem to be an increasing
problem on what to do to spurn employees towards and designing
attractive rewards and incentive that can motivate employees for better
performance. This has become challenging given the low morale of
staff, poor quality of work, absenteeism, problem of general poor
attitude to work and reduced productivity.
Different people hold different needs
and respond accordingly. Motivating people to work could be one of the
basic problems in our society and it has been the concern of many
managers in modern organizations. The concept of motivation is primarily
concerned with inducing and encouraging the willingness of employees to
put in their best efforts for an increased productivity through
incentives. However, most employers seek little or no employee input
thus leading to lack of management and employee cohesion.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
objective of this study is to assess the impact of motivation on the
performance of business education teachers in Oshimili local Government
Area of Delta state.
Other specific objectives include;
- To ascertain the effect salary has on teachers performance.
- To inquire how job enrichment as a management strategy help enhance teachers’ productivity.
- To examine the various target, rewards, incentives and their relationship with the attitude to work of the employees.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
The following research questions were formulated for the purpose of this study:
- To what extent does salaries enhances teachers performance?
- To what extent does job enrichment as a management strategy enhances teachers’ productivity?
- To what degree does targets, rewards and incentives has positive effects on teachers attitude towards work?
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
For the purpose of this research, the following hypotheses were formulated:
H0: There is no significant relationship between salaries and workers performance.
H1: There is significant relationship between salaries and workers performance.
H0: There is no significant relationship between job enrichment as a management strategy and workers productivity.
H1: There is significant relationship between job enrichment as a management strategy and workers productivity.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
People are motivated by unmet needs and
these varies from person to person according to their particular
circumstances, values and beliefs, family, education, personality, and
work experience etc. Management aims are at maximizing profit and
minimizing cost. For this to be achieved, this study provides
information on how to motivate teachers towards increase productivity.
This study will help many organizations
especially the management to improve their understanding about
motivation and its effect on teachers performance. It is expected that
when employees (teachers) are given some incentives, they are likely to
put more effort in discharging their duties.
Therefore, this study will be of
significance to researchers, the public, the employers of
labour/management of organizations and the employees as it delves into
the link between teachers performance in relation to employee
Management of any establishment has to
put policies in place to enable the employees put in their best efforts
towards the higher performance and efficiency.
1.7. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will be centered on
motivation and its effect on business education teachers performance in
Oshimili South Local Government. Parents and teachers in Oshimili South,
particularly Asaba, Delta State, constitute the population of this
study. The region was chosen because the researcher can easily get
information needed for his research since he resides in Asaba. The local
government was also chosen because of its long time of existence.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
In carrying out the study, the
researcher is faced with some constraints which made him not to
generalize his findings. Some of the problems are:
Many parents and teachers tend to
dislike activities that appear to be probing them. They seem to have
special liking for secrecy, thereby tend to avoid researchers. They
considered all information secret. As such, they refuse to give out
meaningful information that would aid the researcher.
Some people (respondents) made it
difficult for researchers to obtain research information. The researcher
was denied access to some confidential data that were considered to be
relevant to the study.
Finally, there was no much work done by
researchers in the areas of study. The researcher therefore found it
difficult to get materials such as emperical review.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY SUMMARY
This study is structured into five chapters;
Chapter one is the introduction chapter,
which deals with the general overview of the study and in addition,
provides brief insight of capital market performance on the
manufacturing sector indirectly. Statement of problems, objectives,
research questions and hypotheses were structured after the overview of
the study. Definition of terms, scope, significance and limitation of
the study work were all included in this chapter.
Chapter two discussed the literature
reviews as related literatures of importance were introduced into this
chapter. This chapter is further organized into several relevant
sub-headings which embodies the review of all the literature relevant to
the research theme. Such sub-headings reflect the following;
Current literature based on the relevant variables adopted for the model of theory.
Theoretical framework and;
Empirical literatures of relevant research papers by authors and scholars associated with this research topic.
Chapter three discusses with a brief
introduction of the research methodology, type of research design to be
adopted, area of study, population and sample size, sample and sampling
techniques, instruments used for data collection, validation of the
instruments, and method of data collection, model specification and data
analysis techniques and then conclude with a summary of the chapter.
Chapter four deals with the data
presentation and analysis of the data presented, summary of the
statistical computation result and its interpretation, the test of the
relevant hypotheses specified for the research study and a summary of
Chapter five ties it all together in the
light of discussion of the findings, conclusion, implications,
recommendation and further recommendation, if necessary, bibliography
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