Staffs training development are
indispensable features if an establishment is achieving its aims in an
environment that is ever dynamic and volatile. In the same vein,
establishments operate policies the making of which employees may have
input. In line with the above, this study is an investigation into the
impact of training and development on organizational effectiveness
within the financial service sector.
With reference to Union Bank of Nigeria
Plc, Lagos, the researcher relied on primary data obtained from the
staff of the organization by means of questionnaire administration. The
sample size of the research was determined from the staff strength
using the random sampling method. The results of tested hypotheses
revealed that training and development of employees increase efficiency
in policy making.
Similarly, the non-challant attitudes of
management toward training could hinder employees’ participation in
policy making. In conclusion, priority given to staff training and
development is reflected in the quality of policy and the sophistication
of the policy making process. As part of its recommendations, the
study highlighted, among others, the need to extend training to all
levels of staff and ensure that the issue is not unduly politicized.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents. vii-viii
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 1
1.3 Purpose of the Study 3
1.4 Significance of the Study 4
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis 5
1.6 Scope of Study 6
1.7 Limitations of the Study 7
1.8 Definition of Terms 7
1.9 The Corporate Profile of Union Bank of Nigeria Plc 8
2.0 Literature Review 11
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 The Concept of Policy 12
2.3 Policy Formulation and Policy Options 16
2.4 Training and Development 22
2.5 Determination of Training Needs 35
2.6 Content of Training and Development Pgrogramme 37
2.7 Evaluation of Training and Development 39
2.8 Types of Training 43
2.9 Relationship between Training, Development and
2.10 Conclusion 50
3.0 Research Methodology 51
3.1 Research Design 51
3.2 Population of Study 51
3.3 Sampling Size 51
3.4 Sampling Method 52
3.5. Sources of Data 52
3.6 Validity of the Measuring Instrument 52
3.7 Reliability of the Measuring Instrument 53
3.8 Method of Data Collection 53
3.9 Method of Data Analysis 53
4.0 Data Analysis and Interpretation 54
4.1 Data Analysis 54
4.2 Hypothesis Testing 62
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations 69
5.1 Summary 69
5.2 Conclusion 70
5.3 Recommendations 71
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Organizations are agents or organs of
policy implementation, and within the context of their delivery of
service or production, they are also empowered to make certain
policies. Policy making is an integral feature of every establishment
which has been designed for specific goals.
However, policy making is not considered
as the common prerogative of all staff members. Effective policy
making is thus a function of experience, competence and functional
While the government defines its policy
objectives and fashions out policy statements in practically all spheres
of national life, establishmentsare expected to operate within the
confines of laid down policies.
Training and development are means by
which employees’ productivity is enhanced (Collins, 2001 164). At the
same time, top officials’ sensitivity and ability to formulate and
respond to policies may receive impetus from training and development as
Balogun (1997:74) rightly points out
The irony of how training and
development are handled in the public sector lies in the poor commitment
to such programmes. In an age when corruption appears to have occupied
a large proportion of government business, money allocated for training
and development is either diverted or those who in fact should have
been given the opportunity for training are never considered. The fact
that policies are prone to public criticism suggests that those who
formulate policies and those who implement them should be expose to
regular training and development programmes as Daily’s work (2004:35)
Because of the whims and caprices
exhibited by human beings, and in an Attempt to avoid domination by the
mighty, policy making is inevitable as this ensures that people conduct
themselves within a civilized frame of behavior. On the other hand, the
process of training is ultimately aimed at coursing a significant
increase and change in the ability of employees to contribute to the
effectiveness of an establishment and laid down policies.
(Makinde,2005:17) Training is considered as pervasive management activity occurring within an organizational context.
It is generally believed that the
government ought to promote public Interest and justify its actions as
being in the public interest. In most cases, people’s appreciation of
government is restricted to making and enforcement of laws. They simply
have not given any prominent weight to government’s role in formulating
and implementing public policies (Jeffery, 2002:19). Perhaps only the
enlightened and concerned members of the academic and social critics
have done this, and will continue to do so.
In many cases, however, every training
activity is aimed at accomplishing the dual function of utilizing and
improving existing skills and techniques of operating. However, to
achieve success, training activities or practices must fulfill certain
Employees must also fully understand and appreciate the reason for Undergoing a certain training activity.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Organizations are supposed to be the
vehicles for bearing and implementing policies in order to realize
latent objectives. In the same process, they have the prerogative to
make certain policies within their areas of operational jurisdiction.
Apart from the fact that most public establishments pay lip service to
training, others invest in training and development but hardly obtain
value-returns in terms of relevant expectations. Some factors may be
Perhaps the attitude of employees to
training and development is not tuned right. It may also be possible
that employees fail to see any personal benefits from such training and
development programmes. Many establishments approach and meet training
needs in an adhoc or haphazard way without a systematic objective
expected in behavioural terms from employees at the end of such training
and development terms from employees at the end of such training and
development programmes. This is where the need for evaluation arises.
To achieve the objectives of effective
training and development, there has to be a proper articulation of staff
development scheme for all levels of staff and a well-designed plan of
deploying staff appropriately. But such features appear lacking a Union
Bank of Nigeria Plc. Again, Inadequate funding is another constraint
to the successful implementation of training and development plans.
Employees may attend a training programme
That has no direct bearing on the tasks
they perform daily. This cannot in any way sharpen their ability to
contribute to the process of policy making nor implementation. Where
staff training and development are not carried out or they lack the
quality that can improve the skills of employees, employees’ ability to
improve the policy making process will be negatively affected. Quality
policy making is the product of sound training and development of staff,
but much inadequacy is apparent in service establishments including
Union Bank of Nigeria Plc.
1.3. PURPOSE OF STUDY
In order to arrive at a logical
conclusion and ensure that a research is not conducted in a disorderly
manner, the purpose of study is imperative.
The study has been designed:
I. To examine the relationship between staff training and policy making:
II. To examine the relationship between staff development and policy making;
III. To ascertain the extent to which staff development has any impact on policy making;
IV. To ascertain the extent to which staff development has any impact in policy making;
V. To find out ways and means of
instituting standard staff training and development schemes that would
make for improved performance in terms of policy making in a service
VI. To make recommendations, where necessary, based on the findings from the study.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is considered significant and
a valuable addition to the store of existing knowledge in the area of
training, development and policy making. A considerable difference
exists between the principles and practice of training. However, only
very few materials, if any, provide empirical evidence to back this
assertion. Again, materials that provide a detailed description of
training and development in view of policy making in service
establishments are scarce. This gap is being therefore filled with this
If training activities do not achieve
their objectives, a good starting point would be to discover if such
activities conform to the principles under which they are practiced.
Therefore, this study would provide valuable insight as to reasons why
training and development should sharpen officers’ ability to make and
implement good policies. The results of this study, it is expected,
would have strong implication on organizational policies as regards
training, development and policy making.
As such, administrators, policy
analysts, critics, managers and top government functionaries among
others are bound to benefit immensely from this study. It s
recommendations would also help in making effective policies at the
establishment level. Students within the fields of public
administration, political science, human resources management and
interested members of the public would serve as a detailed and
systematic presentation of findings with supportive data.
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
The following hypotheses were tested in the study.
Ho: Training and development of employees do not increase efficiency in policy making in service establishments.
H1: Training and development of employees increase efficiency in policy making in service establishments.
Ho: Non-challant attitude of management officials to employees’
training and development have not
hindered employees’ training and development have hindered employees’
positive participation in policy making.
Non-challant attitudes of management officials to employees’ training
and development have hindered employees’ positive participation in
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study was restricted only to
training, development and policy making with reference to public
establishments. Specifically, the Union Bank of Nigeria Plc was
incorporated as a case study reference. The study therefore embraces
the staff of the establishment as population of study from which the
sample size was determined. The study was only aimed at assessing the
impact of training and development of staff on policy making.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
It is a limitation that in the conduct
of research, not all questionnaires administered are promptly returned.
This could have a bearing on the result as available data may not be
adequate enough to make generalization. Again the subjectivity of
respondents over which the researcher has no direct control is a major
constraint. Using the Union Bank of Nigeria Plc as representative of
other service establishments in the service sector is a significant
limitation because opinions differ among the various staff of service
establishments. Incorporating only the staff of union Bank of Nigeria
Plc is thus a limitation as this has reduced the coverage of the study
and its sample size.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms as defined have been used accordingly in the body of this report.
Boost: In this study, any action taken by management to encourage staff morale is considered as relevant.
establishment has a reason for existing and goals to accomplish. The
purpose of an establishment rightly therefore indentifies its expected
government establishment receive statutory financial allocations yearly
from the government to enable them accomplish their objectives.
Policy: A guide to
action or behavior is considered as a policy. Establishments do not
just act or perform tasks outside their constitutionally ascribed
jurisdiction. They must be guided by a set of rules and regulations.
Staff Development: Since
employees are expected to remain stagnant, they grow through experience
and exposure to new ways of doing things. Hence all programmes
designed for this purpose are considered as constituting staff
1.9 THE CORPORATE PROFILE OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC.
Union Bank of Nigeria Plc is a lender in
the Nigerian Financial Sectors with a total of 311 branches
nationwide. The bank has a full fledged branch in London which is
currently being updated into a subsidiary.
The Bank also operates a representative office in South Africa. It is wholly owned and managed by Nigerians.
The Bank had the largest asset among
Nigeria’s financial institutions; totaling N329.6 billion as at the
financial years ended March 312, 2003.
Its gross earnings stood at N2=34.7
billion with a current core capital of N31.2 billion. Union Bank of
Nigerian Plc was established in 1917 as a Colonial Bank with its first
branch in Lagos. In 1925, Barclays Bank was formed to take over the
activities of the Bank.
Between 1959 and 1970, fifty new
branches were established to bring the total number of 59, the Bank was
legally incorporated in Nigeria as a wholly owned subsidiary of Barclays
Bank International Limited and renamed Barclays Bank of Nigeria
Limited. The ownership structure remained unchanged until 1971 when
8.33% of the Bank’s shares were offered to Nigerians. In the same year,
the Bank was listed on the Nigerian stock Exchange. As a result of the
Nigerian Enterprises Promotion decree of 1972, the Federal Government
of Nigerian acquired 51.6% of the Bank’s shares, leaving Barclays Bank
Plc, London with 40%. In 1979, Barclays Bank sold its 50% shareholding
to Nigerians. This resulted in the change of the Bank’s name from
Barclays Bank of Nigerian to Union Bank of Nigerian Limited to reflect
its new image and ownership structure.
The remaining shareholding was disposed
in 1989. Presently, Union Bank Plc is one of the oldest independent and
non-governmental banking institutions wholly owned and managed by
Nigerians. The Bank’s corporate head office is located at 36, Marina in
Lagos. The Bank has a total of 7,645 employees occupying various
positions at its various branches and head office. The Bank operates a
wide range of banking services which include:
- Current Accounts
- Saving Accounts
- Time Deposit Scheme
- Cashing Credit Facility
- Foreign Currency Domiciliary Account
- Agricultural Lending Scheme
- Bankers’ Acceptance
- Bill Discounting
- Credit Information Services and Trade Enguires
- Equipment leasing
- Export Documentation and Finance
- Loans and Overdrafts
- Funds Transfer within and outside Nigeria
- Letter of Credit
- Loan Syndication
The bank has put in place the
structures, strategies and strong management team to enable it stay
ahead of competition. In every State where Union Bank of Nigeria Plc
operates branches, there is an area office which co-ordinates the
branches within the State. The Iganmu and Ojuelegba branches of the
Bank in Lagos were selected for this study.