This research work
explored the impact of organizational culture on employee's performance
using Covenant University, Canaan land, Ota as a case study. Despite the
various culture and norms put in place to bring about increase or
improvement on employees performance, the existence of employee's
behaviour towards culture is questionable. Culture which is a necessity
for any organization is embedded in the fact that human interest, needs
and aspiration differs from one individual to another. It is this
variation in the interest and aspiration and desire of different
individual that leads to clash of interest. As a result of this, culture
is put in place so that the culture of the organization can be known
and adhered to and which directly impact on the performance of the
employees in the organization.
Questionnaire which was
the primary source of data in the study was used and the questions
contained therein assisted us in answering the research questions and
hypotheses stated in chapter one, while secondary data was sourced from
journal articles, textbooks, internet material and unpublished B.Sc. and
M.Sc. theses from the data gathered, majority of the staff agreed that
they are strongly affected (put to here Sir) by the culture of the
university and that it has improved their performances and others areas
of their life's. They agree that they actually benefit from the culture
of the university. We thus recommend that:
1) Management should ensure that the culture is effective and should be easy to comply with.
2) Management should
note that when implementing the culture, the staffs are put in mind and
that it benefits everyone which will invariably impact on their
3) Also, appropriate disciplinary action should be taken against official who do not adhere to the culture of the university.
TABLES OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTORDUCTION
1.1 Background of Study
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Question
1.5 Significance of Then Study
1.6 research Hypotheses
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
1.8 Background of Covenant University
1.9 Definition of Glossary Terms
CHAPTER TWO - LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Concept of Management
2.2 Conceptual Framework of Organization
2.3 Organizational Chart
2.4 Views on Organizational Performance
2.4.1 Definitional of Organizational Culture
2.4.2 Nature of Organizational Culture
2.4.3 Characteristics of Culture
2.4.4 Types of Culture
2.4.5 Deciphering Organizational Culture and Artifacts
2.4.6 Effects of Culture on Organizational.
CHAPTER THREE - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Population of study
3.2 Sampling size
3.3 Sampling Technique
3.4 Research Design
3.5 Data Collection Instrument.
3.6 Data Collection Procedure
3.7 Data Analysis
CHAPTIER FOUR - DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION
4.2 Data Presentation
4.3 Analysis and Data Result.
4.4 Testing of Hypotheses and Discussing Results
CHAPTER FIVE - SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMEDATION
5.1 Sun unary of Findings
5.2.1 Empirical Findings
5.4.1 Limitation of Study
5.4.2 Suggestions for Further Study
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1.1 Returned rates of questionnaire
Table 4.1l.2-4.1.6 Bio-data of Respondents
Table 4.1.7-4.1.19 Research questions and analysis
Table 4.4.1-4.4.2 Table of Hypotheses
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 Functional Organizational Chart of a Manufacturing Company
Figure 2.1 Product/market Organizational Chart of a manufacturing Company
Figure 2.1 The Layers of organizational Behaviour
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Culture as a concept has had a long checked red
history. It has been used by the layman as a word to indicate
sophistication, as when we say that someone is very "cultural". It has
been used b~ anthropologist to refer to the customs and rituals that
society develops over their course of history. In the last several
decades it has been used by some researchers and managers to refer to
climate and practices that organizations develop around their handling
of people. Or to the espoused values and credo of an organization.
Michael Armstrong, (2006) Defined Organizational or
Corporate culture as the set of values, norms" beliefs, attitude and
assumptions that may not have been articulated but shaped the ways in
which people behave and things get done. Values refer to what is
believed to be important about how people and the organization behave.
Norms are unwritten rules of behaviour.
The definition emphasizes that organizational culture
is concerned with the abstractions such as values and norms which
parades the whole or part of an organization. They may not be defined,
discussed or even be noticed. Put another culture can be regarded as a
code word for the subjective side of organizational life. Myerson and
Martin, (1987). Nevertheless, culture can have a significant influence
on people behaviour. Below are some definitions of Culture:
The culture of an organization refers to the unique
configuration of norms, values, beliefs and ways of behaving that
characterize the manner in which group and individual combine to get
things done. Eldridge and Crombie, (1974).
Culture is a system of informal rules that spell out how people are to behave most of the time. Deal and Kennedy, (1982).
Culture is the commonly held beliefs, attitudes and
values that exist in an organization. Put more simply, culture is the
way we do things around here Furnham and Gunter. (1993)
Considering the above definitions of culture Farnham
and Gunter list, amongst others, the following areas of agreement on the
concept: It is difficult to define (often a pointless exercise).
It is multi- dimensional, with many different
components at different levels. It is not particularly dynamic and ever
changing (been relatively stable over short period of time).
It takes time to establish and therefore time to change
a corporate culture. Farnham and Gunter refer to a number of problems
with the concept including: How to categorize culture (what terminology
to used); When and why corporate culture should be changed and how this
takes place what is the healthiest, most optimal or desirable culture
1.2 ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE AND CULTURE.
The term organizational climate is sometimes confused
with organizational culture and there has been much debate on what
distinguishes the concept of climate from that of culture. In his
analysis of this issue, Denison (1996). Believes that culture refers to a
deep structure of organizations, which is rooted in value, 'beliefs,
and assumptions held by organizational members. In contrast, climate
refers to that aspect of the environment that is consciously perceived
by organizational members.
Rousseau, (1988). Stated that climate is a perception
and a descriptive. Perceptions are sensations or realizations
experienced by an individual. Descriptions are what a person reports of
The debate about the meaning of these terms can become
academic. Is easiest to regard organizational climate as how people
perceived (see and feel about), the culture existing in their
organization. As defined by French et al (1985), it is 'the relative
persistent set of perceptions held by the organizational members
concerning the characteristic and quality of organizational culture they
distinguish between the actual situations (i e culture) and the
perception of it (climate).
In another context, organizational culture is “the set
of shared, taken for granted implicit assumptions that a group holds and
that determines how it perceives, thinks about and reacts to its
various environments. Kreitner and Kinicki (2004). This definition
highlights three important characteristics of organizational culture.
First, organizational culture is passed on to new employees through the
process of socialization. Secondly, organizational culture influences
our behaviour at work. Finally, organizational culture operates at
Organizational culture that lack positive values may result in employees who are unproductive and indifferent and have poor attitudes which will be reflected externally to customers. The key to success in organizations
is satisfying customers. An efficient organizational structure and
matching culture should help an organization do just that.
Finally, organizational culture is an approach to plan
change and it's a long-term more encompassing change approach meant to
move the entire organization to a higher level of functioning, while
greatly improving the performance and satisfaction of organizational
1.4 STATEMENT OF RESEAR¢H PROBLEM
Statement of the problem is a basic step in a research project that will provide the needed information in the study.
The concern for every organization has always been that
the accomplishing the stated organizational objectives so that it
survive and prospers. To attain these objectives, organization used
strategies, adopt programme plans (cultures, norms and values) that they
feel would enable them realize their missions and achieve their goals.
With the changes that occur in external: environment of organizations
and the impact of such changes on the organization, then interest of the
research is stimulated to investigate into organizational culture and
norms as they affect organizational performance either positively or
negatively as a route to achieving these organizational objectives.
Organizations faced such problems as lack of adequate
financial resources, lack of skill workers, inability to adapt to or
adhere to the culture of the organizations, interest, and low level of
motivation, an orthodox cultures and norms etc. These can be addressed
by organizational culture and norms
1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Any research work must have an objective which it seeks to achieve;
The objectives of this research till be to:
1. Examine the factors that Necessitate organizational culture to bring about changes in the organization.
- Examine the impact of organizational cultures and norms on performance.
- Examine the impact of organizational cultures and norms on performance.
4. Examine the elements organizational culture.
5. Examine the type of orgazational cultures that are there in organizations.
1.6 RESEACH QUESTIONS
The essence of this paper is to the relevance of
culture and norms to organizational Performance. Therefore such
questions can be asked as follows:
- Does covenant University recognize the need for culture and norms and take steps to provide necessary procedures for success?
- Has culture and norms brought bout improvement in Covenant University?
- Are the cultures implemented beneficial to Covenant University and its employees?
- Should professionals (culture experts) be called upon to assist in
ensuring good effective and efficient performance in Covenant
1. 7 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
Since the start of the century, thousands of new
products have appeared and lots of Changes have occurred. In most
situations, these changes are initiated from conditions or Factors
present in the external environment.
Organizational culture and n norms interventions such
as rules, mission statements, Visions, reward systems are a w of the
techniques which the manager has at his or her disposal tom achieve
stated organizational goals given that organization cultures and norms
has the potential to me significance impact on the ideals, principles
and behaviour of leadership and management in an organization.
Thus the significance of this res arch is that it would:
- Examine the factors that necessitate organizational culture to bring about changes in the organization
- Examine the impact of organizational culture on performance.
- Examine the problem, c used by organizational culture in organizations.
- Examine the elements 0 organizational culture.
- Examine the type of organizational culture that are there in organizations.
1.8 SEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Ho: Culture and does not enhance organizational performance.
HI: Culture enhances organizational performance.
Ho: Culture is not beneficial to employees.
Hi: Culture is beneficial to employees.
1.9 SCOPE AND LIMITATIO OF THE STUDY
For the purpose of this
study, emphasis will be on formal organizations that provide services to
their customers or client and offer career opportunities to their
members. This study will Centre around change efforts aimed at the
people in the organization in particular, we shall emphasize on
organizational culture and norms which its primary focus is on changing
people and the nature and quality of their working relationships.
This research project has
not been without some constraints which have made the execution of the
project extremely difficult. These constrains are the limitations in
terms of finance, failure of respondents to return questionnaires,
illiteracy on the part of the respondents and time constraint
1.10 BACKGROUND OF COVENANT UNIVERSITY
Covenant University is a
product of the Liberation Mandate God gave to his Servant Bishop David
O. Oyedepo in an ay 1981 vision- encounter. The drive to embark on the
process of founding C U came bout October of 1999, one month after the
dedication of Faith Tabernacle, the largest church auditorium in the
world, built in one year with only local resources. As with all segments
of the main vision, Bishop Oyedepo immediately kindled the fire for
accomplishment of the new task. By November 27, 1999, an in-house
consortium on the take-off of e University was inaugurated and by
December 1999 then application form for a private University operating
license was collected from the National Universities Commission (NUC).
As the activities of the
consortium wound up early in 2001, an advisory council was inaugurated
on February 17, 2001 to develop appropriate structures for the take-off
of the University. By July 15 2001, verification team of NUC came for
final inspection of facilities and programme. The outcome of that visit
was the Federal Government's approval of C U on January 16 2002. This
approval was sealed with the presentation of the operating license to C U
on February 12, 2002, by which C U, Ota, Ogun State, was authorized to
operate as a private university in Nigeria. Not only was this approval
the fastest in the history of the 16 plication’s for establishment of
private universities filed with the NUC (7 years being the next
duration), but Covenant University's assessment score was also the
The foundation stone of
the permanent site was laid on Sunday, January 27, 2002 and construction
began diligently in March of the same year. The first phase of
development was completed eight months 1 term while the first batch of
about 1500 students was ushered into an ultra-modem university campus
after an early morning inauguration on October 2002.
All over Africa,
particularly in Nigeria, a great significant is attached to names. Names
carry meanings and important Messages. They reflect circumstances of
birth or events that occur in the environment f that birth. The word
“Covenant " was chosen to express the University's commitment and vow to
perform its best in the process of making the total Man of all her
students. It reflect the intention of the proprietors of the University
to uphold the agreement with her students to facilitates the fulfilment
of their desire for excellence and care r exploits by offering them the
best in educational development and, thereby, offering their parents and
guardians the best value for their investment in their children. It a
so common knowledge that every covenant is ratified by blood and, as a
mission-sponsored university, we consider the blood of Jesus Christ,
which is the blood of the everlasting covenant, as our stronghold for
the fulfilment of this awesome obligation. Covenant University vows to
transform her products, that is, her graduate as, into expert thinker’s
unusual managers, and hyper-resourceful technocrats in all field of
human endeavor. University is bound by an oath to achieve the highest
standards of educational service in the world. Our commitment to
creating the Total Man is a direct result of this vow d agreement
between students and the proprietors of Covenant University.
Excerpt from the speech of
r David Oyedepo, Chancellor, and Covenant University at the
inauguration of the Advisory Council on February 17, 2000. The
University vision statement is "To be Leaders in all fields of human
endeavor". In other to be able to achieve this the University mission
statement is 'to create knowledge and restore the dignity of the black
man via a human Development Total Man Concept driven curriculum
employing innovative, Leading edge teaching and learning methods,
research and professional services that promote integrated, life-
applicable, life- transforming education, relevant to the context of
Science, technology and Human capacity Building"
1.11 GLOSSARY OF 0 ERATIONAL TERMS
The act of getting things done through others
The ability to minimize the use of resources in achieving organizational objectives, "Doing things right".
A person who plans,
organizes, co-ordinate and controls the human financial, physical and
informational, physical and informational resources of an organization.
The basic pattern of
shared assumptions, values and beliefs governing the way employees
within an organization think about d act on problems and opportunities.
Enduring beliefs in mode of conduct or end state