This research examined the Effect of
Strike on the Quality of Education in Lagos State Higher Institution
with special reference to Lagos State University. The research adopted
survey research design. Data were gathered through primary source with
the aid of a well-structured questionnaire. Simple random sampling
technique was adopted in the selection of sample, this was used to
eliminate biasness in the selection process of the respondents.
Data garnered were presented on table
using percentage and the formulated hypotheses were analysed with the
used of Chi-square statistical method. The result of the analysis shows
that Government interference in Universities brings about incessant
strike actions. Also, Strike action persists in Nigeria Universities
because workers are not well remunerated, and inadequate infrastructure
in the Universities system is a cause of strike action by the work
Based on the conclusion of the analysis recommendations were proffered to the staff and management of Lagos State University.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Table of content vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study 4
1.2 Statement of the problem 8
1.3 Objectives of the study 13
1.4 Research questions 13
1.5 Research Hypothesis 14
1.6 Significance of the study 14
1.7 Scope and limitation of the study 15
1.8 Definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW/THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Introduction 17
2.2 Concept Strike 17
2.3 Types of Strike 20
2.4 Incidence of strike Activities 23
2.5 Implication of Strike in Nation Building 24
2.6 The Effect of Strike on Educational Institution 26
2.7 Remote Causes of the government Conflicts 27
2.8 Cause of strike Action
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Methodology 31
3.2 Research Design 31
3.3 Population of the study 31
3.4 Sample and sampling Techniques 32
3.5 Method of Data Collection 32
3.6 Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: Data Presentation Analysis Interpretation
4.1 Introduction 34
4.2 Summary of Responses to Questionnaire Section 52
4.3 Hypotheses Testing 55
4.4 Discussion of Finding 56
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary 59
5.2 Conclusion 60
5.3 Recommendations 60
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Strike defined by the Webster’s
dictionary as an organization refusal to work by employees of an
organization e.t.c because of a disagreement e.g. pay or condition.
Strike can be defined as temporary stoppage of work in the pursuance of
grievance of demand. According to law 184, strike can be defined as
they lessation of work by a body of person employed and acting in
combination or collected refusal or a refusal under a common
understanding of any number of person employed to continue to work for
an employer in consequence of a dispute, done as a means of completing
their employer or any person or body or person employed, or to any
person or anybody of employed to accept terms of employment of and
physical condition of work.
“The key elements in the definition are
- Lessation of work “which simply
means deliberately working at less than usual speed or with les than
usual efficiency. And.
- Refusal to continue to work’ includes a refusal to work of usual efficiency
FUNTUWA (1979) defined education as the
aggregate of all the processes by which a child or adult develops their
ability, attitudes and other forms of behaviors which are of positive
value to the society.
Spencer (1963) asserts that education
has for his object the formation of character. Dewey 91993) started that
optimally education meant the intelligently directed development of
possibilities where not in ordinary experience and which assist the
individual in the direction of subsequent experience.
From the above concept education
institution is aggregate of culture and society by means of which the
process of transmitting relevant ideal, knowledge value and skill and
training of individuals through various agencies of education especially
Overtime strike actions has been used a
veritable tools of labour or management negotiation tactics, it has been
used and some will say over used to low recalcitrant employer both in
private and public sector.
Strike has an effect on workers in the
public sector with special emphasis on LASU as an Educational
Institution, parts of the effect to be considered include pay or
condition, job insecurity les of motivation, paralysis of workers
initiatives global academic standard e.t.c.
The down turn and subsequent depression,
inflatory treads and the degradation of the Nigerian economy in the
past decade, has made the socio educational consequences of the
emergency of various strike action by unions like the Senior Staff
Association of Nigeria (SSANU) the non Academic Staff Union (NASU), the
Academic Staff Union University (ASUU). These unions are responsible
for a continuous association of wages earns for the purpose of
maintaining or improving the conditions of the working lives. The
actions of the union in the educational institution in Nigeria are much
powerful than the political parties because they have legitimate power
to call out worker on strike.
The power in this collective of workers can promote the resolution of a variety of problems by the workforce.
The higher education in Nigeria is
composed of universities, polytechnics, institutions of technology,
colleges of education that from part of are affiliated to universities
and polytechnics, colleges and professional specialized institutions of
technology, colleges and professional specialized institutions. They can
be further categorized as state or federal government Universities are
owned and funded by the federal government, while state Universities
owned and financed by the state government. First generation
Universities are the six Universities established in the 1970’s while
Universities refer to the eleven institutions including the universities of Technology established in the 1980’s and 1990’s.
Lagos State University was established
in 1983. it fall between the second generation universities, Nigeria
universities experienced a wave of strike as Lecturers ands student from
one University after another demonstrate for different reasons.
The decay in Nigeria Institutions of
Higher Learning is caused, in part, by the fact that lecturers and
professors in Nigerian Universities go on strike for six to nine months.
However, there are shortage of tools and facilities in Nigeria
universities but constant strike by workers make academic decay in
Nigeria institution worse, not better.
The problems we have highest are not
unique to Nigeria alone, even in the united state, the professors are
doing more less, indeed, this is the experience of many African
Universities expert perhaps South Africa, but in is unusual to her that
professor in this country go on strike every year.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The devastating effect of strike action
and its attendant problems in the educational sector of a country makes
this phenomenon a matter of enormous concern in Nigeria especially.
The consequence of strike action on
educational institution are enormous and of the highest magnitude all
over the world. It is a known fact that all over the world that strike
action and protest is the oldest and extensive vice that plague an
industry in a country.
Strike is as old as any industrial sector and it is a major problem facing civilization.
Strike is a serious problem among
educational in Nigeria universities, among academic and non-academic
staff, they have chosen to embark on strike action, rather than engage
more on academic for the development of their student and for
development of their students and for the growth of the country. These
problems have promoted research to analyze the causative factors as well
as critical looking at strike as it effects to the educational
institution society as a whole.
The frequent ASUU strike is always
caused by the government, due to their frequent interference on
educational and substantive rule agreed upon collectively with the
union. These anti-intellectual, anti- universities and anti-student’s
polices of Obasanjo’s military regime precipitated the process of
destruction of the universities since the 1970’s. The above background
information provides an explanation for the crisis in the universities
as well as the attitude and policies of Obasanjo regime towards the
university over the past four years.
Also the illegal termination of
lecturers’ appointment also contributed to the occurrences of strike
actions. Example, termination of Lecturers appointment of Unilorin
lecturer in (2001) under the Obasanjo civilian regime is not accident
neither is his self-imposed yoke of fighting ASUU. But the consequences
is the destruction of the Nigeria educational system.
Secondly, poor remuneration of the
workers in educational institution in Nigeria happens to be the major
problem that causes strike almost all the time, the last three days
strike that occurred in LASU, in the month or March 2005 is due to owing
of salaries. In essence remuneration refers to salary or wages and all
the allowance and financial benefits payable to an employees either in
cash or kind in return for his services.
The long ASUU strike that took place at ABU on the 14th
October 2003 is due to poor remuneration. After all this situation
could have been completely avoided if only reason prevailed and dialogue
was employed to resolve to issues in dispute. The major point that
causes this ASUU strike was
- Payment of the four month
salaries (February-May 2003) with held during the suspended natural
strike of ASUU (which lasted from 29th December 2002 to 18th June 2003).
- Correct implementation of the UASSW as contained in the NUE. Circular of 23rd January 2003, and payments of various arrears if allowance occurred over the period of 2½ years (Since May, 2001).
- Rectification of the truncated
steps or annual increment in the salaries of lecturers on UASS 1-4 and
payment of arrears.
The steady decline in the Nigerian
Universities system and the inevitable corruption in which the system
itself is now enveloped Examination Leakages, Course not rackets. Sex
for grades amongst other characteristics of the system that no longer
prepare students for good citizenship.
Cultism has merely as the violent aspect
of a system which no longer serves its basic function. Under finding
Universities by the federal and state governments, intervention of
public affairs that are not conversant with campus life has been
recognized as part of the causes of frequency strike in which
universities found themselves.
Universities have been forced to admit
more students than can cope with and have frequent been compelled to
admit students they would other wise reject
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the research is to:
- Asses the extent and the various causative factors, which lead to the prevalence of strike on universities campus.
- To critically analyze the social and psychological factors that influence strike actions.
- Identify when strike is necessary and when it is not necessary.
- To determine the effect of strike on academic activities in Nigeria Universities.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Some fundamental questions that are posed in the course of study are as follows.
- What are the effects of strike action on workers
- Does an increased occurrence of strike action have any significant influence on academic standards?
- What factors lead to strike action on LASU campus?
- Are there any major crises associated with strike action
- What are the socio-economic effects of strike action on the employee?
- What are the efficient ways for managing strike action?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
A. - Ho1: Government interference in Universities brings about incessant strike actions.
B. - Ho2: Strike action persists in Nigeria Universities because workers are not well remunerated.
C. - Ho3: Inadequate infrastructure in the Universities system is a cause of strike action by the work force.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research study helps to educate and
give overview of the problem of strike action. It will enlighten the
general public, the Universities (OJO CAMPUS) community, academic staff,
student and government on strike action as a phenomenon. The study will
also provide useful information for policy planners, mangers,
employers, workers as well as general public.
The finding of the study will also be useful to scholar and students.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The major concern of this study is to
determine and to know why workers are involved in strike action, its
merit and demerits, its role in the service and how it achieves it aims,
it definitions, causes and the extern of strike actions on our society,
this is necessary because it leads us to the conditions under strike
can take place which specific reference to Lagos State Universities (ONO
1.8 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
ANTAGONISTIC: - A person who show or feels opposition
BARRICADED: A barrier made from the nearest available object and placed across something as a defense or an obstacle.
PRICE HIKE: An increased in the cost of something.
EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION: Place where relevant ideals, knowledge, value and skill and training of individuals.
RECALCITRANT: Resisting authority or discipline.
STANDARD: A special level of quality
SOLIDARITY: Unity, agreement and support result from shared interest, feeling, actions and sympathizers e.t.c.
SYSTEM: - A group of things or parts working together as a whole
STRIKE: Refusal to work by an employee at a particular period of time.