Sometimes, during the
course of labour-management relations, conflicts are inevitable.
Infacts, some specialists are of the view that conflict is an
institutionalized aspect of industrial relation because it brings about
the much-needed co-operation at the end. Conflict is described as
antagonism between people-between managements and workers at workplace.
It is believed that conflict is better managed than eliminated within
the growing realization that a number of benefits are accruable as well
as costs. The study objectives includes the following; the examination
of conflict on organizational productivity; nature of conflict and
employee job commitment and means of managing conflict within an
organization. The research hypothesis includes; the significant
relationship between conflict management and organizational
productivity; between implementation of conflict management policies and
organizational productivity and between intelligent cooperation and
organizational productivity. Survey research method was used and the
population size was (170) but (150) one hundred and fifty were returned,
analyzed and computer in the chapter 4 analysis of data, while the
statistical tool of Chi-square was used to analyse the hypotheses due
The study was concluded,
summarized and recommendations were preferred at the end of the study
for public and national consumption as my contribution to extending the
frontiers of knowledge
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Background of the study
1.1 Statement of the problem
1.2 Objectives of the study
1.3 Research questions
1.4 Research hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study 1.6 Scope of the study
1.7 Limitation of the study
1.8 Operational definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Various views of conflict
2.1.1 Conflict Development
2.2 Types of conflict
2.3 Sources of organizational conflicts
2.3.1 Scarce resources
2.3.2 Task specialization
2.3.3 Personality clashes
2.3.4 Communication problems
2.3.5 Differences in style
2.3.6 Task dependency
2.4 Effect of conflict
2.5 Managing conflict in an organization
2.5.1 Structural approaches
2.5.2 Interpersonal approaches
2.6 Conflict stimulation method
2.7 Conflict resolution method
2.8 Brief history of NAHCO
2.9 Vision of NAHCO
3.0 Research Methodology
3.2 Research design
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sample and sampling techniques
3.6 Validity & Reliability of the instrument
3.7 Method of Data Collection
3.7.2 Interview method
3.7.4 Secondary data
3.8 Sources of data collection
3.8.1 Primary source
3.8.2 Secondary source
3.9 Method of data analyses
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSES AND PRESENTATION
4.1 Data presentation
4.2 Presentation and analysis of data
126.96.36.199 Conflict always has negative effect on workers productivity
188.8.131.52 Irregular promotion by management gives rise to conflict Job dissatisfaction lead to conflict
184.108.40.206 Job dissatisfaction lead to conflict
220.127.116.11 Poor interdepartmental communication result in group conflict
18.104.22.168 Organization decline in productivity is as a result of clashes among workers
22.214.171.124 Conflict always result to new inventions on your organization
126.96.36.199 Conflict always has negative consequences in your organization
188.8.131.52 Proper delegation of authority and responsibility of management will reduce unit conflict
184.108.40.206 Conflict has increase labour turnover in an organization
220.127.116.11 Divergent interest between the employer and employees is the cause of conflict in the organization
18.104.22.168 Conflict arises as a result of overlapping roles of members of organization
22.214.171.124 Mass retrenchment had lead to conflict in organization
126.96.36.199 Disagreement among workers had lead to conflict
188.8.131.52 Lack of cooperation between management and staff resulted in conflict
184.108.40.206 Encroachment of right between two workers of the same level has result to conflict
220.127.116.11 Proper level of interpersonal relationship can reduce conflict in organization
18.104.22.168 Regular dialogue in an organization reduce conflict
22.214.171.124 Understanding of laid down policies among workers in an organization can reduce conflict
126.96.36.199 Involving staff representation in conflict
settlement will boost employee's moral which leads to increase in
188.8.131.52 Good relationship between organization and the
public in as a result of successful of internal corporate conflict
4.3 Test of Hypotheses
1.0 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The word 'conflict' is universal because today organizations are faced with vast array of conflicting situations.
Conflict is wide spread in
human societies and runs through the whole organization both profit and
non-profit making organization. It arises among members in an
organization and even within the personality of an individual. Thus,
conflict is one of the most difficult challenge a manager faces.
The American Heritage
College Dictionary defines conflict as "a state of disharmony between
incompatible or antithetical persons, ideals, or interest; a clash". A
modern view of conflict is defined as follows: "conflict is a process in
which one party perceives that its interest are being opposed or
negatively affected by another party.
The use of the word
perceived in the Second definition is a reminder that the source of a
conflict can be real or imagined. Conflict can also mean that there is a
difference in opinion or agreement between two parties or groups who
are trying to achieve the same goal, causing one of the parties to feel
that his or her efforts to achieve the goal is being hindered or
.challenged by the other party. When disagreement is poorly dealt with,
the outcome can be contention, creating a sense of psychological
dissonance between people.
Conflicts occur due to the
dynamic state of things today in organization and the society at large.
In this way we could say that there is a growing recognition of the
importance of conflict in organization. A recent survey that managers
spends a considerable portion of their time dealing with conflict, and
that conflict management has become increasingly important to their
effectiveness most especially in the area of organizational
productivity, therefore we can say that conflict is inevitable and
important in human process.
In the earlier stage,
conflict was viewed as evil and also linked with violence, destruction
arid irrationality to re-engage it negative connotation by this
definition "Conflict" is regarded as harmful and must be avoided.
To the "traditionalist"
the absence of conflict in an organization is an evidence of success in
status- quo interest, yet the existence of conflict in an organization
shows that the degree of co-operation is generally present in a
well-managed organization. Due to this, we could say that conflict is
better off when it is managed than eliminated. In this way one agrees
that with the growing realization, conflict has a number of benefits as
well as costs.
Therefore it needs to be
managed rather than eliminated. The various ideals about conflict, human
relations argued that conflict is a natural and inevitable occurrence
in all groups and organization and that conflict is a normal and natural
consequence of human interaction :n organization settings, but they are
complex and its occurs for many reasons. For example, internal stress
coming from the person and overlapping with the job, incompatible
expectations among workers, workers group and values etc. With these the
human relations come out with the idea that conflict need not be evil,
but rather has the potential to be a positive drive in determining
organizational productivity, thus it is inevitable and unavoidable.
Organization in another
Way is a principle of life. It meets many different kinds of man's
emotional, spiritual and intellectual and economic needs. The major
purpose of organizations are developed and designed by man to overcome
his own limitations.
Organizations are grouped into two mainly:
- Formal organization
- Informal organization
Format organization is an
organization that has a well defined structure that described it
authority, power, accountability and responsibility.
Informal organization is an organization that is loosely organized, flexible and not well defined.
In organization, conflict
often occurs between the supervisors and subordinate, supervisors in the
same rank etc. However, the solution is objective and skilled at
creating a climate in which the two parties can arrive jointly at a
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The real challenge
managers are facing today is the necessity of understanding and learning
how to respond positively and creatively to conflict at the various
levels and in the widely diverse areas found in the organization.
Conflict, if not properly
managed can cause problem in job satisfaction and organizational
commitment, thus, leading to an un-conducive atmosphere, strikes, labour
disputes and unrest, distress on the part of the organization as well
as hindering the realization of the organizational goals and objectives.
The focus of the study will be on how to manage conflict effectively in
order to avoid those problems
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major objective of
this study is to investigate the effects of conflict management on
organization productivity. Other objectives include:
- To examine the impact of conflict on organizational productivity
- To examine the nature of conflict on employee job commitment
- To find the means of managing conflict with the organization
- To examine the different types of conflict and its impacts on organizations
- To emphasized the relationship between conflict and the organizational productivity
- To examine the causes, sources and solution of conflict in business organization
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
For the purpose of this study the following research questions- were formulated to guide the study:
- How can conflict lead to organizational decline in productivity level?
- What are the general effects of conflict on organization performance?
- What bring about conflict in an organization?
- How can conflict be effectively managed in an organization in order to increase productivity?
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
HO - Conflict management does not have any significant effect on organizational productivity.
Hi - Conflict management has significant effect on organizational productivity.
HO - Implementation of conflict management policies does not have significant effect on productivity.
Hi - Implementation of conflict management policies has significant effect on productivity.
HO - Intelligent cooperation as a result of effective communication will not boost productivity
Hi - Intelligent cooperation as a result of effective communication will boost productivity
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of the
study is to look at the impact of conflict management in the
organization. It is hope that the findings and recommendations would be
useful to both public and private organizations. This study will help
managers in exploring the benefits realization that conflict can bring
to any organization, using NAHCO as a mirror.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
A general survey has
revealed that much attention has not been given to the impact of
conflict on organizational productivity in this country and most
especially managers, despite the fact that the effect of conflict is
inevitable and universal in the society. However, this project aims at
looking into these problems, most especially in large organizations and
to see the achievement so far and also make: the necessary
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
There are some limitations
faced by the researcher during the course of this study. Limited time
and financial challenge were some of the limitation encounter by the
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
v Behaviour: This is the way a person responds to a situation or stimulus.
This is define as a disagreement between two or more organizational
members or groups based on the fact that they need share resources or
because they have different goals, values or perception.
It is primarily a mechanical process, in which a message is constructed
and encoded by a sender, transmitted through some channel, then receive
and decoded by a receiver.
management: This is a holistic approach to divergent orientation
between both parties (employer and employees) as the case may be, with
the objective of mitigating the effect of the conflict, preventing
conflict from ensuring and to make the most of the opportunities offered
by the same conflict.
The process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling the effort
of an organization member and of using all other organizational
resources to achieve stated organizational goals.
This is define as a co-ordinate social unit, made up of two or more
people that function on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a
v Organizational Productivity:
This is the aggregate level at which all the resources in the corporate
organization are being put to use; its measurement in real terms is the
output level of all resources in the organization.
v Productivity: This can be defined as a measure of how effectively; all the factors of production have been put to use.
v Policy(ies): It is a predetermined, selected, course established as a guide towards accepted goals and objectives.
v Psychological Dissonance: This is an emotional instability or disorder, an unrest mindset or doubts.
v Role Conflict: This is defined as difficulties which an individual experiences in performing a particular role.
v Role Expectation: This is a situation in which other expects a person to act in a given period.
v Role Perception: This is defined as an individual's view of how he/she is expected to act in a given period.
v Role Identity: This is defined as certain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role.