This project work has been design with purpose
of examining conflict management in an organization.
This research work has been broken down into
five chapters. The first chapter deals with the background to the study and
insight to conflict management in an organization
The second chapter gives a comprehensive
literature review on conflict management.
Chapter three will briefly discuss the
methodology in relations to data collection.
Chapter four is an analysis of respondents and
test of research Hypothesis.
Finally, chapter five deals with summary,
conclusion and recommendation.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page 1
Table of content 3
1.0 Introduction 5
to the study 9
of Problem 11
of the study 13
of study 14
1.6 Scope of study 15
to the study 16
of concepts 16
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
of conflict in the earlier Phase of industrialization till date 23
of industrial actions 33
of industrial conflicts 39
resolution machineries 43
and stages 44
procedure for settlement of conflict 46
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Population of study 52
Sample procedures and
Method of data collection 53
Method of Data Analysis 54
Limitation of the Research Methodology 54
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Introduction 57
4.2 Testing of
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 Introduction 72
5.1 Summary 72
5.2 Recommendation 73
5.3 Conclusion 76
Appendix (Questionnaire) 79
In any relationship between human beings or
between management and workers, there is no guarantee of perpetual peace as
long as the relationship persists. This emanates from the fact that human
beings are made of different interests, aspirations and temperament and there
is bound to be conflict at one time or the other.
By Daniel, I meant a disagreement between two
or more parties over issues of divergent interest. It becomes industrial when
it occurs in our industrial saffine. For peace and tranquility to reign
supreme, socio-conflict have to be managed or reduced to its barest minimum or
averted completely through amicable resolution process.
The way and manner conflict in an organization
is managed can lead to it being functional or dysfunctional. Hence, conflict is
inevitable, for instance the management interest 'within an organization being
about maximization of profit while labour main concern is to become and maintain the highest condition of
services of workers. According to Otobo (1982) industrial conflict may be
organized for unorganized,
organized conflict is likely to form part of conscious strategy to change the
situation which is identified' as the source of conflict. In unorganized
conflict, the worker responds to the situation in the only way open to him as
an individual that is by withdrawal from the source of discontent of individual
sabotage and indiscipline.
The concept of port as an integral part of
social, political and economic development of a country was not properly
addressed in Nigeria until 1954. Before then, port operation and management had
been a joint responsibility of different government departments. The handling
of cargo at the quays in Lagos for instance, was undertaken by the Nigeria
Railways department. The Marine Department was in charge of the maintenance of
the harbour channel and the
berthing of vessels, whilst a Port Engineer in the public works department was
responsible for maintaining the quays.
This system of port operation and harbour
organization was later found inadequate and the needs therefore arose for a
well constituted body, to control and manage the nation's ports. In effect, the
Nigeria Ports Authority was created by the Ports Acts of 1954 and began
operation on 1st April, 1955. Formally established as an autonomous public
operation on 14 May, 1955, it assumed the responsibility for certain ports and
habour activities previously conducted by the government department and vested
with the assets which had been used by the government in the conduct of these
The primary objectives of this organization
includes cargo handling, cargo storage, rentage of landed property, ship repair,
dredging of sea channels provision of communication facilities etc.
The number of ports, capacity of ports and
volume of trade' handed in the ports have grown substantially. The oil boom of the 1970's attained Nigeria's
pattern of exports and greatly expanded the volume of imports. However, with
the introduction of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) in 1986,
emphasis is now being placed on the development of interval resources that will
encourage export oriented goods and decrease the amount of importation.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In an organization, we have the management and
workers. Each party with its own interest, aspirations and temperaments. For
instance the management interest within an organization is about maximization
of profit which means, they will like to produce at a low cost, while the
labour main concern is to secure to workers. This kind of situation can lead to
conflict. Conflict is a process which begins when one party perceives that
another party has frustrated, or is about to frustrate, some concerns of the
party. Ind. It has to be perceived by the parties involved. If two or more
parties are not aware of conflict; then no conflict exists. In any organization
existence of conflict is inevitable hence sometimes, conflict is functional in
that its improves the quality of decisions, stimulated creativity and
innovation, encourages interest and curiosity amongst group members provides a
way of hearing grievance releases tension and encourages self-evaluation and
change. These results are best achieved where conflict is managed well but if
not it becomes dysfunctional, which means it will breed discontent, dissolves
communities, led to the destruction of the group, retard communication, reduces
group cohesion, individual interest supplant group goals, reduces group
effectives and thirteen group survival. When such situation occurs and not
proper machinery used to check its ugly heads, it can led to strike, look out,
In a nutshell, the way and manner conflict is
managed go a long way in determining the effective and efficient performance of
the organization, both unions representative should put head together and
dialogue. They should baring concessionally or just use integrated bargaining
were each party does not need to be too rigid on its interest.
In order to curb the spate of conflict in
organization some procedural rules will include any of the following;
It is assumed that these rules should be
followed by the employees and employers so to guarantee industrial peace and
harmony necessary for efficiency and productivity.
Individual conflict is a phenomena that is
commonly associated with industrial proportion of workers depends on their
wages for survival. This hydro-headed monster called conflict has eaten deep
into the fabric of our industries. It manifest
itself in various forms, like high labour turnover rate, strike, lockouts, disputes sabotage to employers
equipment, absenteeism, industrial accident etc. In the work place when
industrial conflict is full blown to strike or lockout, it affects both the
employers, the management and the citizens who are consumers of such produce or
services of the industry. The end result of such industrial actions on the
worker is his going back to') his personal savings for support throughout the
industrial unrest period. To the employers the production will stop, cost of
new contract and no profit. The study will endeavour to critically evaluate the
trends and patterns of industrial conflict and its resolution process.
The effectiveness of
these resolution mechanisms towards guaranteeing industrial peace and to
determine the extent to which productivity of an organisation will be affected
by industrial conflicts.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE
The history of industrial
conflict IS not alien to many Nigerians. This is because, majority of t11e citizens this country
have been directly or indirectly affected by the actions of the organized
labour. However, the objective of this study is to bring to the public focus
the following amongst others.
The subject matter of industrial conflict.
The Causes and a thorough
x-ray of effectiveness of industrial conflict resolutions processes in Nigeria.
To evaluate the impact of industrial conflict on the
productivity of Nigerian organization.
To determine how best
industrial conflict be managed to ensure efficient of effective organizational
To make useful recommendation and conclusion for a viable
system of ensuring and enduring industrial harmony.
The findings of this study will be useful for
organization especially engineering industries in managing conflicts to the
best optimization of organization goals.
The result could also be of help to other
organization within and outside the country.
To provide empirical foundation for this
studY1 the following should be the research question:
are the causes of industrial conflict in Nigeria organization?
are the response of management to industrial conflicts?
are the best ways of managing conflict to ensure effective and efficient
The main hypothesis of the study can be
summarized in the following hypothesized relationship: -
Organizational performance is not directly
related to the level of industrial conflicts.
Organizational performance is directly related
to the level of industrial conflicts.
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of this study will be limited to
Nigeria ports authority, meanwhile, data that will be used in this study will
be obtained from the Marine engineering industry for the analysis and
interpretation of the result finding will be based on these data. Hence, the
generalizations of the research findings will be limited.
1.7 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The findings of this
study will be useful for organization like Nigeria ports plc in managing
conflict to the best optimization of organizational goals. Practically to
provide organizational particularly practising
industrial relations managers with the knowledge of conflict and its
effect on organization production. It
will serve as a secondary data to other research in the same of related topic,
the result will be or help to other organizations within and outside the
1.8 CLASSIFICATION OF CONCEPTS
1. INDUSTRIAL CONFLICT: This may be regarded as dissatisfaction
arising from the interaction between labour and management in the work
2. DISPUTE: According to Trade Dispute decree NO.7 of 1976 defined trade
dispute as any dispute between employers and employees or between workers and workers
which is connected with the terms of employment or condition of work of any
PRODUCTIVITY: This is known as the
efficiency and capacity of all organization.
ORGANISATION: Breech (1963) defined
organization as the frame work of the management process as formed by the
definition of the responsibilities by means of union the activities or
enterprise are dispersed among managerial supervisory and specialized personnel
employed in its service.
TRADE UNION: This IS regarded as the
legitimate representation of employees interest at work with the right to
challenge the right of management to manage. Simply put, it is defined in the
Nigerian Trade Union act of 1973, section l' as any combination of workers or
employers, whether temporary or permanent, the purpose of which is to regulate
the terms and conditions of employment of workers.
INDUSTRIAL ACTIONS: This IS the reaction of
either parts to the conflicts in an attempt to make the other party to
COLLECTIVE BARGAINING: According to 98
convention of international Labour Organization, collective bargaining is defined as
the voluntary negotiation between employers or employees organization with a
view to negotiate terms and conditions of employment by collective agreement.
Strike: This is a temporary
refusal by workers to work in accordance to the prevailing employment contract
or other conditions that may not have seen specified or implied in the
contract. Also, the trade dispute Act of 1976, define strike as cessation of
work by a body of person employed, acting in combination or concerted refusal
under a common understanding or workers to continue to work for an employer in
the consequences of dispute as a means of compelling their
employer to accept or not to accept terms of employment and physical condition
9. LOCK - OUTS: the trade dispute decree No.7 section 37 of 1936 defines
lock-out to mean the closing of place of employment or the suspension of work
of the refusal by an
employer to continue to employ any number of persons employed by him in
consequence of a dispute, with a view of compelling those person to or another
employer in compelling persons employed by him· to accept terms of employment
and physical condition of work.
BARGAINING: In recent times, there has
grown an interest in new forms of negotiations that has been vigorously termed
"Interactive", "Win - Win" or "Mutual Gains"
bargaining (see fisher and Vry, 1981). The desire is to make bargaining less
adversarial and labour relations more harmonies. Hence, industrial parties that
engage the integrative bargaining basically desire or seek to understand the
other party's needs focus or problems and evaluate range of alternative
solutions while ultimately· concentrating on the generation of solutions that
mutually meet needs of both parties (Strauss, 1998: 178 – 675)