This research was an attempt to examine
“Collective Bargaining and organizational Effectiveness in Nigeria state
owned Enterprises” a case study of Lagos printing corporation. However,
the objectives of this study amongst others includes, examining
Collective Bargaining as a process of achieving industrial peace when
considered along the line of it’s needs and penetration into management,
extent of workers participation, industrial discount, functions of
bargainers, power of bargainers, values of bargainers and third party
The methodology used involved
collections of data through primary and secondary sources. While,
Eighty-three (83) structured questionnaires were administered on
members of Lagos printing corporation. But only sixty-six (66) responses
were returned. data generated were analyzed through percentages and the
use of chi-square statistical method.
The findings of the study also look at
the organizational effectiveness from the point of view of it’s sets
purpose and the extent of which the purpose has been achieved. This
will encompass the group of people who make use of the organization’s
resources through the process of planning, organizing, controlling,
co-ordinating and directing to attain the states organizational goals.
Also, information management departments
should be created in all branches so as to improve efficiency and the
department so created should not be made to be an affiliate of any other
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Front Page i
Table of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of Problems 3
1.3 Research Question 4
1.4 Statement of Hypotheses 4
1.5 Purpose of Study 5
1.6 Relevant of the Study 6
1.7 Scope and Limitations of Study 6
1.8 Definition of Terms 7
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Historical Background 10
2.2 Joint Consultation 11
2.3 Organizational Effectiveness 13
2.4 State Owned Enterprises vii 14
2.5 Relevant Theories on collective Bargaining 14
2.6 Management Concepts and Organizational Effectiveness 21
2.7 Management Role and organizational Strategies 30
2.8 Management by Objectives 32
2.9 Managerial Control 34
2.10 Areas of Control 35
2.11 Element of a Control Process 37
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 40
3.2 Research Design 40
3.3 Source of Data 40
3.4 Population of the Study 41
3.5 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques 41
3.6 Restatement of Research Questions 42
3.7 Restatement of Research Hypotheses 42
3.8 Validity of Research Instrument 43
3.9 Reliability of Data Collected 43
3.10 Method of Data Analysis 43
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction 45
4.2 Presentation of Data Interpretations 45
4.3 Research Findings 57
4.4 Testing of Hypotheses 57
CHAPTER FIVE : SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary 60
5.2 Conclusion 61
5.3 Recommendations 62
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Collective bargaining is a process in
which the employer Or group of employers and workers representatives or
workers Union arrives at or attempt to arrive at a collective agreement.
Impact of collective bargaining can also
be defined as a Negotiation of working conditions and terms of
employment Between employers, a group of employers or one or more
Employers’ organization on the other with a view to reaching Agreement (
Ilo, 1996, pg 656).
It’s also refers to as the negotiation
between employer parties and Trade unions in order to determine terms
and conditions of work and all other aspects and issues arising from the
employment relationship ( Vettoris M-S 2005).
This is done by direct negotiation by
the player’s management, Union representatives and government.
Researching agreement is perhaps what makes negotiation equal to
Bargaining. Otherwise when negotiations go on endlessly without Concrete
agreement no bargaining could be said to have been Struck ( Shola .F.
2007 pg 167).
The issues involved in impact of
collective bargaining includes, ensuring the presence and maintenance of
Peaceful industrial atmosphere which is a necessary pre-requisite For
the continued growth and process of enterprise, it provides a System of
establishing conditions of employment, it provide means by which workers
are represented in decisions affecting their interest, it also
represents the democratic or participative Ingredient necessary to any
good work setting.
The Variances in the aspiration of
management and desires of Workers which results in conflict are the
rescue of two parties attempting to maximize the benefit desirables from
each other. While the workers want the management that would recognize
it Contribution to the organization. It tries as much as possible to
Concede the seniority and leadership of management. This is Because the
workers perception of their position is quite different from the way
management sees them. Where management succeeds in recognizing these
expectation there is generally some harmonious relationship but if
otherwise, workers reaction is naturally negative because they feel
disappointed and demonstrated.
Effects of collective bargaining has
been misconstrued by some managers with the result that very low
attention is given to it. Such managers believe that the industrial
unions are only Interested in discussing proposals and demand put
forward by the union rather than contributing to the development and
growth of The organization.
This misconception portray the unions as
trouble makes confussionist, desrupters of peace and those who rejoice
by creating a situation of Anarchy: Leading to disrupt, hatred,
bitterness, disrespect and antipathy.
Following the wrong notion of industrial
relations, some industrial relation personnel are usually not objective
in their assessment of proposals made to the management by industrial
unions. As a result, industrial unrest might be kindled by irresponsible
or careless management utterances or over-zealous interpretation of
From the foregoing, impact of collective
bargaining is expected to Have a reciprocal effect resulting from the
collective agreement should normally be added incentives for the
individuals and every Strata of the work group in achieving maximum
efficiency for the Organization. For an organization to be effective,
the objectives of employee and that of organization must not conflict.
Once this is achieved it would not be difficult to put in place whatever
measure that could lead to organizational effectiveness.
A good organization should have well
segmented system of works that allows for direction and creativity.
Checks methods should also be introduced in order to ensure that
performance is in consonance with the organizational Objectives.
This project therefore examines the effectt of collective bargaining and organizational effectiveness.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
These problems of effect of collective
bargaining on organization effectiveness are issues that bothered all
actors in the collective bargaining process management union and
government over the years.
This study project trend the effect of
collective bargaining on organizational effectiveness. Arising from the
foregoing are the problems as follows:
- Management resentment to union activities
- Under-utilization of Technocrats.
- Union participation in company’s decision making is either not allowed or very low
- Labor turnover within the rank and file of organization due to low morale.
- Main job attitudes.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To be able to clearly evaluate the
effect of impact of collective bargaining on organizational
effectiveness, the following questions are imperative:
- What are the actions that could be taken in order to incorporate in
organizational policies union participation in decision making?
- In what ways can a change of attitude by workers union oversee to management control and conflict handling methods?
- To what extent have inadequate provision of equipment, incentiveness and lack of clear objectives enhance labour turnover?
- In What ways can theory which stipulates that people are last,
unambitious, prefer to be directed and avoid responsibility be said to
be true of job attitude of workers?
- Does the level of technology in development of new products process
material and services make for adequate utilization of technocratic?
1.4 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
HO: There is no significant relationship between impacts of collective bargaining on organizational effectiveness.
H1: There is significant relationship between impact of collective bargaining on organizational effectiveness .
Ho: There is no significant relationship between impact of collective bargaining and performance appraisal.
H1: There is significant relationship between impact of collective bargaining and performance appraisal.
1.5 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of this study is to make
known that any life Endeavor that is not purposive of achieving good
result is a wasted effort. Hence, this study is great towards examining
the impact of collective bargaining as a process of achieving industrial
peace when considered along the line of it’s needs and penetrations
into management extent of worker participation, industrial discontent,
functions of bargainers, power of bargainers, Values of bargaining and
third party involvement.
On the other hand, this study looks into
the organizational effectiveness from the point of view of it’s set
purpose and extent of which the purpose has been achieved. This will
encompass the group of people who make use of organizations resources
through the process of planning, organizing, controlling, co-ordinating
and directing to attain the stated organizational goals.
1.6 RELEVANT OF THE STUDY
The study is relevant because it will
expose the researcher to a wide array of relevant literatures. When view
from the point of strategic role played by collective bargaining in
socio-economic life of workers and industrial well-beign.
As a study focuses on state owned
enterprises which rendered essential services to the nation, it’s
effectiveness have severally been querried because it is believed that
they lack order and therefore cannot be effective.
A meaningful analysis of issues involved
in this research will bring about reasonable contribution towards
improving people’s understanding and bringing to their knowledge the
prevailing situation in the state owned enterprises.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
To be able to make a meaningful study of
the subject matter, the study should cover workers participation in
management, structure and procedure of bargaining, work of bargainers
industrial discontent, Value of bargaining power of bargaining and joint
consultation. Others will include issues that would make for
effectiveness in organizations Viz: structure of the organization,
leadership, motivation, policy of the organization, co-ordination,
political interferences, stability of government and state of economy.
Our research must have identified
stratagies levels, we call them power move (which brings reluctant
bargainer to realize that they must negotiate).
Process move ( which a bargainer use to
build receptively where a direct or aggressive approach might encounter
resistance). Appreciate move ( this foster open communication so that
differences in need and views can come to the surface without personal
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Collective Bargaining: This is the process of arriving or attempting to arrive at a collective agreement.
Unions Representatives: Unions officials ( Executives) duly elected to run the affairs of the union.
Collective Agreement: An agreement reached at the end of collective bargaining show the consensus of both management and union.
Players: Management, union and Government.
Industrial Peace: Cordial Relationship between union and management.
Conflict: Disagreement or clash about the allocation of scarce resources, goals, values etc.
Industrial Unions: Unions within organization e.g PENGASSAN Within the oil industry.
Antipathy: Strong and decided dislike.
Work Group: Two or more people who interact within and influence each other towards a common purpose.
Segment System: A system segmented along product market or geographical lines.
Leadership: The process of directing and influencing the task related activities of group members.
State owned Enterprises: Establishments
of Government at Federal, State and Local Government Levels to provide
essential services e.g. NEPA, Water Boards. Etc.
Organizational effectiveness: The measure of how well organizations do their jobs.
Organizational Goals: Purpose for which organizations are set up.
Organizational Resources: Human, money and materials.
Industrial Discontent: Unhappiness among workers about unfavorable working conditions.
Joint Consultation: A meeting of management and union at which staff welfare is discussed.