1.1 Background of the study
The Workplace is an environment for
upgrading, improving and reforming the traits related to emotional intelligence
competencies such as perception and control of emotions.
Emotional intelligence is an important
forecaster of key organizational outcomes including job satisfaction,
organizational commitment among civil servants. A person who is able to
understand and isaware of one's own feelings, and controls stress, negative
emotions, and feelingof frustration, can certainly have better relationships
with colleagues and supervisors, which ends in increasing job satisfaction,
organizational commitment and better jobperformance (Bernard).
intelligenceexplains the ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions.In
1990, researchers defined emotional intelligence as the subset of social
intelligence which involves the ability to monitor one's own and others'
feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information
to guide one's thinking and actions. It is believed that emotional intelligence
can be learned and strengthened, while others believe it is an inborn trait.Some emotional and social competencies
are important in the workplace,which include adjustment in the face of the
problems, self-management, interpersonal effectiveness, discussionskills in the
face of different opinions and disagreement. Emotional intelligence improves
the performance of theorganizations, and has an important role in productivity
and effectiveness of the organizations; therefore, employeeswith high emotional
intelligence are considered invaluable assets (Yagazie: 2000).
service by nature is a service-oriented organization. Governmentalactivities
are allotted to the ministries who in turn are expected to deliver services to
thepublic. Thus, as service providers, the ministries are always in constant
touch with themembers of the public. This interaction goes a long way in the
public perception andassessment of government performance. No matter how
unpleasant their job is, publicservants have to keep their feelings under
control in order to safeguard, the interest oftheir employer. It is at this
point that emotional labour comes in. Emotional labor is a requirement of a job
that employees display required emotions toward customers or others. More
specifically, emotional labor comes into play during communication between
worker and citizen and between worker and worker (Wikipedia).Emotional labour
holdsthat employees should display emotions that comply with certain expression
norms orrules of the organization which help to create desired state of mind in
the customer. Bythis, employees are expected to appear happy, nice and glad
when rendering service totheir customers regardless of any private misgivings
or any different feelings they mayhave.
commitment is considered an important forecaster for somepositive and negative
outcome variables. Employees with strong affective commitment to the organization
perform better than those with lower levels ofaffective commitment. It is
positively related with employees’ motivation, job performance, and job
satisfaction, andnegatively related with absenteeism and turnover, as well as
stress. Uncommittedemployees not only had the lowest level of acceptance of
organizational values, but they also felt alienated from theorganization.
(Scarborough and Somers, 2006) Salovey and Mayer (1990, p. 189) define
emotional intelligence as“the ability to monitor one's own and others'
feelings, to discriminate among them, and to use this information toguide one's
thinking and action.” Human resources who have the ability to communicate with
each other effectivelycan lead the organization toward success and
effectiveness. Therefore, individuals recruited in the organizationsshould be
aware of and understand emotions in the self while knowing that they are, what
they believe in, whatthey say, what they think, how they make decisions, how
not to get angry, how to control one's emotions in differentconditions, and how
to act with others. In such a situation, they will be able to recognize and
control emotions in others.
of the problem
Employees with high emotional intelligence
confront low occupational stress in their job environment, yet employees with
low emotional intelligence have less self-awareness, and as a result, in the
face of difficult conditions, they are not able to copewith their feelings and
have too much stress which, in turn, has a negative influence on their job
satisfaction and commitment.
of the study
The main objective of this study is to examine emotional
intelligence and emotional labour as determinant of organizational commitment
among public servants.
To investigate the effect of emotional
intelligence and emotional labour.
3. To look at the predictability of emotional
labour from the combination of emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and organizational
spite of economic, hierarchical, and management problems in an organizations,
especially in the public organizations, can emotional intelligence be a
solution for increasingjob satisfaction and organizational commitment and
diminishing occupational stress in the workplace?
thereother factors and variables having mediatory roles in the effects of
emotional intelligence on organizationaloutcomes such as organizational
is the pattern of relationship among emotional intelligence, self-efficacy,pay
satisfaction and emotional labour?
is the overall effects of emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and
paysatisfaction on emotional labour?
1.5 Research hypotheses
is no significant negative relationship between emotional intelligence and
there is significant negative relationship between emotional intelligence and
Ho: Employees with strong
affective commitment to the organization do not perform better than those with
lower levels of affective commitment.
Hi:Employees with strong
affective commitment to the organizationperform better than those with lower
levels of affective commitment.
of the study
This study will help and teach individuals recruited in the organizations to be
aware of and understand emotions in the self while knowing that they are what
they believe in, what they say, what they think, how they make decisions, how
not to get angry, how to control one's emotions in different conditions, and
how to act with others.
The study will teach staff, individuals how to able to recognize and control
emotions in others.
1.7 Scope/Limitations of the study
study on emotional intelligence and emotional labour as determinant of
organizational commitment among public servants.
Limitations of study
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the
efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature
or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously
engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down
on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 Definition of terms
intelligence:defined emotional intelligence as the
subset of social intelligence which involves the ability to monitor one's own
and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this
information to guide one's thinking and actions.
labour:Emotional labor is a requirement of a job that
employees display required emotions toward customers or others.
servant:is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction,
either directly (through the public
sector) or by financing
provision of services.Organization:the act or process of organizing.Organizational
commitment:is a concept that has to do with the
degree of commitment and loyalty that employees exhibit toward employers.Commitment: the act of committing.