1.1 Background of the study
Investing in human
resources through training and management development improves
individual employee capabilities and organizational performance.
Training of workers is a very essential tool for human resource
development, but this can only become relevant after a workers’ training
need assessment has been conducted. Training needs assessment is define
as an ongoing process of gathering data to determine what training
needs exist so that training can be developed to help the organization
accomplish its objectives. The training needs assessment is a critical
activity for the training and development function.
Gent, and Gregory (1989) asserted that,
conducting training needs assessment is fundamental to the success of a
training program. Often, organizations will develop and implement
training without first conducting a needs analysis. Goldstein
(1991) noted that these organizations run the risk of overdoing
training, doing too little training or missing the point completely.
The purpose of a workers training needs
assessment is to identify areas that are deficient in performance
within an organization in order to help direct resources to the areas of
greatest need, those that closely relate to fulfilling the
organizational goals and objectives, improving productivity and
providing quality products and services. The results of the needs
assessment allows the training manager to set the training objectives by
answering two very basic questions: who, if anyone, needs training and
what training is needed? Sometimes training is not the solution. Some
performance gaps can be reduced or eliminated through other management
solutions such as communicating expectations, providing a supportive
work environment, arranging consequences, removing obstacles and
checking job fit.
Gupta, (1999) opined that,
designing a training and development program involves a sequence of
steps that can be grouped into five phases: needs assessment,
instructional objectives, design, implementation and evaluation.
However, Organizational analysis examines where training is needed in
the organization and under what conditions the training will be
conducted. It identifies the knowledge, skills, and abilities that
employees will need for the future, as the organization and their jobs
evolves or changes.
In this context, Training Needs
Assessment (TNA) processes have a strategic role because they provide
clear guidelines as to which professional skill deficiencies must be
remedied and what the profile of future trainees should be. For
Al-Khayyat, (1998). training needs come from underdeveloped skills,
insufficient knowledge or inappropriate worker attitudes. Aguinis &
Kraiger, (2009). define training needs as identified differences
between the employees’ current performance and the performance that the
organization expects of them.
In view of this therefore, the study
attempts to examined the strategic role in assessing workers’ training
needs in selected large scale organizations in Cross River State with
particular attention on Niger mills plc and United Cement company
(UNICEM) PLC, Calabar, as a case study.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Investments in training and development
of employees can make organizations more productive or more effective.
Gupta,(1999) Identified some unresolved issues such as new workplace
demands and requirements are causing major changes in activities and
operations within the organization which requires a regular update of
workers skills to meet up with the expectations of this new workplace
demands. Similarly, the rapid pace of technological changes in the
information society, the increasing operational procedures required for
production, the reduction in the product life cycle, and rapidly
changing production processes are quite revealing issues which is
seeking for urgent response in the area of workers’ training and regular
updating of skills. Therefore, in response to these growing pressures
in the workplace there is need for workers’ to be fully equipped, but
this can be achievable through continuous training programs arising from
training need assessment in every organization that will want to
succeed by attaining its set goals.
Rosner, (1999) noted that, despite the
strategic role of worker training need assessment, research shows that
training needs diagnoses have been done in an unsystematic manner in
organizational settings. There is still relatively little theoretical
and empirical research on training need assessment (Supino &
Richardson 1999). Addressing and resolving this issues has however,
prompted the desire of the researcher to conduct an examination of the
strategic role of assessing workers’ training needs in selected large
scale organizations of Cross River State, Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The main objective of this study is to
examine the strategic role in assessing workers’ training need in Niger
Mills PLC and United Cement Company, Calabar. To achieve this broad
objective, the following specific objectives have been taken into
(i) To examine the strategic
role of workers training need assessment on employee training in Niger
Mills PLC and United Cement Company, (UNICEM) Calabar
(ii) To determine the impact of
training needs assessment on New workplace demands in Niger Mills PLC
and United Cement Company,(UNICEM) Calabar.
(iii) To evaluate the strategic
role of training needs assessment on workers’ skills in Niger Mills PLC
and United Cement Company, (UNICEM) Calabar.
(iv) To underscore the strategic
role of training needs assessment on organizational success in Niger
Mills PLC and United Cement Company, (UNICEM) Calabar
1.4 Research questions
(i) How does the
strategic role of training needs assessment influence organization goals
in Niger Mills PLC and United Cement Company, (UNICEM) Calabar?
(ii) How does training
needs assessment impact on employee productivity in Niger Mills PLC and
United Cement Company, (UNICEM) Calabar?
(iii) To what extent does
workers training need assessment impact on organization effectiveness
in Niger Mills PLC and United Cement Company, (UNICEM) Calabar?
(iv) To what extent does
training needs assessment impact on organizations performance in Niger
Mills PLC and United Cement Company, (UNICEM) Calabar?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
(i) There is no significant
relationship between training needs assessment and organizational
success in Niger Mills PLC and United Cement Company, (UNICEM) Calabar
(ii) There is no significant
relationship between workers’ training needs assessment and
organization’s competitive advantage in Niger Mills PLC and United
Cement Company, (UNICEM) Calabar
(iii) There is no significant
relationship between training needs assessment and employee job
satisfaction in Niger Mills PLC and United Cement Company, (UNICEM)
(iv) There is no significant
relationship between training needs assessment and organization’s goals
in Niger Mills PLC and United Cement Company, (UNICEM) Calabar
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
In terms of coverage, this study focuses
on examination of the strategic role in assessing workers’ training
need in Niger Mills PLC and United Cement Company, Calabar. This means
that issues relating to training needs assessment will be explained. In
view of the technicalities involved, it would be unrealistic to assume
that all necessary facts will be gathered in the process of the study.
Information is limited to those accesses and made available by the
respondents and also have gathered from end users. More so, since large
scale organizations have many forms, the study will only be limited to
Niger Mills PLC and United Cement Company, Calabar.
Some of the constraints are:-
- Time constraints
The researcher finds it difficult to go
round all the departments in Niger Mills PLC and United Cement Company,
Calabar due to limited time availability, as a result of this, the data
were only collected from few staff randomly.
- Inadequate data
training need assessment is a recent
developed system in which not all large scale organizations have
embraced, those that have embraced it were able to give their
information to the researcher and those that have not fully embraced it
were unable to give accurate data to researcher.
- Lack of funds
Due to the nature of this work, the
researcher find it difficult to raise the funds needed to carry out the
research appropriately, as a result of this, Niger Mills PLC and United
Cement Company, were selected based on the available finance to enable
researcher get the needed information.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study will be of immense benefits
to public and private organizations especially Niger Mills PLC and
United Cement Company, Calabar to understand the strategic role of
training needs assessment in organizational success. It will also help
them to understand the steps to follow in designing and implementing
training need assessment programme. The research if conducted will
equally be significant to both state and federal government in making
policies that will encourage regular training need assessment to update
its worker with latest relevant skills that will enhance productivity.
It will also serve as a valuable tool for students, academician,
institutions and individuals that wants to know more about the strategic
role of training needs assessment.
1.8 Historical background of the organizations studied
(i) United Cement Company (UNICEM)
The United Cement Company of Nigeria Ltd
(UNICEM) is formed as a private limited liability company under
Nigerian law with registered office in Nigeria by Holcim Trading S.A.
and Flour Mills of Nigeria Plc. In Nigeria, the name, UNICEM stands for
advanced technology, quality product and the leading supplier of cement
in the South-South and South-East regions. As the second largest cement
plant in Nigeria, their core activities are the manufacture and sale of
Ordinary Portland Cement.
UNICEM has its head office based in
Calabar and all cement manufacturing operations have been consolidated
at the 2.5million tons per annum Mfamosing plant, north-east of Calabar.
Their mission statement indicates a
strive to be one of the most socially responsible cement companies in
Nigeria. In achieving this they operate on the basis of best practices
in accordance with shareholder, lender and local Nigerian legal and
regulatory requirements so far as corporate governance, good corporate
citizenship and sustainable practices.
UNICEM acquired the assets of Calcemco, a
state owned cement company sold by the Nigerian Government after
liquidation. The CALCEMCO plant was planned and constructed by
Salzgitter Industriebau GmbH (SEG); Germany in the 1970’s to meet the
high demand for cement in Nigeria (UNICEM Bulletin, 2006).
(ii) Niger Mills plc
Niger Mills Company Limited is a flour
milling company that has been managed by Flour Mills since the 70s. It
is located in Calabar, approximately 6 kilometers from the port and the
mill has a total capacity of approximately 750MT of wheat per day.
The company has recently completed a
modernization program by commissioning a new state-of-the-art PLC
controlled flour mill which accounts for over two-thirds of its total
capacity. The new mill is currently running 6 days per week and has
achieved an operating efficiency of nearly 90% which has led to a 40%
growth in sales.
Flour Mills of Nigeria Plc (FMN) is one
of the largest and most successful industrial conglomerates in
Nigeria.The Company’s activities span flour milling, pasta
manufacturing, port operations, cement trade & manufacturing,
fertilizer blending, bags & other packaging materials manufacturing
and agricultural business.
Since its incorporation in 1960, Flour
Mills of Nigeria Plc has not only survived all macroeconomic challenges
but also grown into a market leader with popular and highly recognizable
brands, an extensive distribution network, a turnover in excess of N90
billion (USD 700 million), strong profitability, healthy Balance Sheet
and a highly skilled workforce.
Flour Mills of Nigeria Plc has been
listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange since 1978. With a broad ownership
base of approximately 67,000 shareholders, it is constantly ranked
amongst the top 25 companies in terms of market capitalization. In 2005
the Company successfully completed a N5.24 billion (US$40.7 million)
rights issue which was oversubscribed by 8%.
Flour Mills of Nigeria Plc group employs
approximately 5,200 staff with diverse ethnic, cultural and religious
backgrounds who work harmoniously together to deliver superior value to
Nigerian consumers nationwide
1.9 Definition of terms
In order for the researcher to achieve
the objectives of the proposed research, the following terminologies
will be useful to guide the study:
Needs assessment:- This
is a systematic process for determining and addressing needs, or "gaps"
between current conditions and desired conditions or wants (Rosner,1999).
Training:- Referes to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies (Storey ,1992).
Large scale organization: Is a company which has large manufacturing plants around the world and attends to a large amount of employees (Gupta,1999).
Organization: Is an entity, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment (Schreuder, 2013).