The training and
development of employees and management team has continued to evolve
time and time again. Training and development has come to be seen as
pivotal in implementing organizational-wide cultural change efforts,
such as developing a commitment to customer service, adopting total
quality management, or making a transition to work directed work teams. A
successful training begins with a thorough needs assessment to
determine which employees need to be trained and what they need to be
trained to do. Any training undertaken without a careful analysis of
whether or not it is needed is likely to be ineffective and a waste of
money. However, this research is concerned with the effects of training
and development on the employees of Power Holding Company of Nigeria and
this has proved to be vital to future economic, socio-cultural and the
sustenance of civilization of the larger Nigerian society. Training and
development in PHCN is still haphazard, disjointed and uncoordinated. To
move forward improvement and thorough needs assessment and proper
analysis is important in order not to continue wastage of human and
capital resources due to lack of proper training.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Backgrounds to the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Research questions
1.5 Research hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Scope limitation of the study
1.8 Definition of terms
1.9 Organization of the study
1.10 Organization of the study
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 Concept of management
2.3 Rationale for training
2.4 Training techniques
2.5 Tools for manpower development in organizations
2.6 The relevance of training and development in Nigeria
2.7 Problem of training and development in Nigeria
2.8 Options for effective training and development in Nigeria
2.9 Strategy for training and development
2.10 Cost of training and development
2.11 Training and development programmes
2.12 The training phase
2.13 The evaluation phase
2.14 Theoretical framework
2.15 Human resources development in the future
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.2 Restatement of research questions
3.3 Research hypotheses
3.4 Research design
3.5 Population of the study
3.6 Sample and sampling techniques
3.7 Data collection instruments
3.8 Administration of instrument
3.9 Validity and reliability of the instrument
3.10 Method of data analysis
3.11 Limitations of the methodology
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Respondents' characteristics and classification
4.3 Presentation and analysis of data according to test of hypotheses
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of findings
5.4 Suggestions for further studies
1.1 BACKROUND TO THE STUDY
For any organization to succeed, the human element has
to be developed, and motivated. It has been proved overtime that
training and development is closely linked to the short, medium, and
longtime business plans and has been seen as a vital element in the
organization's ability to prove itself with its customers. These
provides those responsible for implementing training and development
with the best possible raison d'etre - a direct contribution to
corporate goals. Thus in a fast moving consumer goods Company, training
will be geared towards sales achievements against the competition. In a
high- technology company, training will be geared to product quality
and innovation. In a district general hospital, training will be geared
towards the provision of a high and reliable standard of patient care.
The training function, now popularly called the Human
Resource Development [HRD], coordinates the provision of training and
development experiences in organizations. Training function begins with
the diagnosing of training needs and the establishments of a clear cut
objective for training programs. The next step is to design and deliver
training programs that uses appropriate methods and procedures to
maximize the learning and subsequent job performances of trainees
Recent changes in the environment of business have made
the HRD functions even more important in helping organizations maintain
competitiveness and prepare for the future. Technological innovations
require training for affected employees. Competitive pressures are also
changing the way organizations operate and the skills that their
employees need. For instance organizations need to provide quality
management and customer service trainings so as to keep up with the
rising challenge of consumer expectations. Restructuring and downsizing
also means that many employees need to be trained to take on expanded
The training and development of employees is an issue
that has to be faced by every organization. The amount, and quality of
training carried out varies enormously from one organization to another.
Factors influencing the quantity and quality of training and
development activities according to Wayne (2007) include:
- Degree of change in external environment [e.g. technological change, new legislation etc]
- Decree of internal change [new processes, new markets, etc]
- Availability of suitable skills within the work force
- Adaptability of the existing work force
- The extent to which the organization supports the idea of internal career development
- The commitment of senior management to training as an essential part of economic development
- The extent to which management sees training as a motivating factor in work
- Knowledge and skills of those responsible for carrying out the training
Trainings and development are provided for many
reasons: to orient new recruits to the organization, or to teach them on
how to perform in their initial tasks to improve the current
performance of employees who may not be working as effectively as
desired, preparing employees for future promotions or for upcoming
changes in designs, processes or technology in their present job
Finally, art organizations philosophy and strategy are
inextricably linked with its approach to improving the current or future
performance of its employees. Organizations that are not committed to
the training and development of their own workforce will instead seek to
hire skilled employees from outside. It is important to note that
training and developments of employee can also help reduces cost, by
reducing wastages in production. Training and development provides a
framework for improving business performance and competitiveness through
a systematic approach setting and communicating business objectives and
developing people to meet these objectives.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is not just enough to set up an organization, employ
people to work and procure machines to be utilized. The main objective
of human resource department of any organization is to help contribute
to the organizations overall goals. Training programs should be
developed systematically and with the organizations true needs in mind.
The basic problem facing organization is the problem of human resources.
Every organization at some point in time will have a need, which is
linking the individuals to the strategic places, functions, and
positions in the organization.
A survey of management training practice revealed that
only 27% of organizations systematically assessed the training needs of
their managers. Often there is no systematic effort to predict future
training needs or to determine if perceived needs and problem actually
exist and can be properly addressed. It has also been discovered that
training are done without careful analysis of whether or not it is
needed or that it is likely to be ineffective and a waste of money. As
inappropriate training can also sour the attitudes of trainees towards
all organizationally sponsored trainings and may reduce their motivation
to attend future and perhaps more useful programs.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
- To determine the relationship between training and development of workers and organizational growth.
- To determine the essentiality of training and development on organizational success.
- To know the extent to which workers behavior could change as a result of training and developmental programs.
4. To identify various stages of implementing the training and development programs for effectiveness.
- To make recommendations based .on the findings of the
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Do employees need additional training program to meet up with organizational goals?
- To what extent does systematic training and development change employee’s behaviour towards improved performance?
- Can organized training and development of employees lead to customer’s satisfaction?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
- Ho: Employees do not require additional training and development to meet up with organizational changing demand.
HI: Employees do not require additional training and development to meet up with organizational changing demand
- Ho: Systematic training and development programmes do not
significantly change employees behaviours and perception towards
Hi: Systematic training
and development programmes significantly change employees behaviours and
perception towards assigned tasks.
- Ho: training and development of workforce will not lead to customer's satisfaction
Hi: training and development of workforce will improve customer’s satisfaction.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
With this research carried
out, organizations should know that training and development is a
learning activity which is directed towards future needs, rather present
needs, and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate
performance, Managers must realize the need to apply a systematic and
coordinated approach to training and development of employees as the
only way to achieve success.
This research will also be
of immense benefit to students of managements, as it will help them to
know that with a well-trained work force organizations will tum out a
high standard of goods and services, in a more cost-effective manner.
As a result of this
research, government should ensure that organizations embarked on
training and development of their staff as a means of enriching the
country with competent, productive, and professionally trained working
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This research focuses
mainly on the Effect of Training and Development on Organizational
Growth, and the study is based on Power Holding Company of Nigeria
[P.H.C.H]. due to factors such as logistics, time and financial
constraints in carrying out the study extensively to cover every aspect,
the study has been restricted to a particular site preferably the
office of P.H.C.N located at Oba Akron Road, Ikeja, Lagos.
financial constraints, frivolity of workers during interview, and the
unavailability of adequate data bank for information are few of the
limitations encountered during the course of the research exercise.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
is any long-term learning activity which is aimed at preparing
individuals for a variety of roles in society: as citizens, workers, and
members of family groups. The primary focus of education is on the
individual and his or her needs, and secondly on the community as a
is process of acquiring knowledge, understanding, skills, and values in
order to be able to adapt to the environment in which we live. Such
adaptation generally, but by no means always, involves some recognizable
change in our behavior.
is any learning activity which is directed towards the acquisition of
specific knowledge and skills for the purposes of occupation or task.
The focus of training is the job or task. This is any learning activity
which is directed toward future needs rather than present needs, and
which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance.
The focus of development tends to be primarily on an organization's
future manpower requirements, and secondly on the growth needs of
individuals in the workplace.
refers to an increase in some quantity over time; the quantity can be
physical [e.g. growth in height, growth in an amount of money] or
abstract [e.g. a system becoming more complex, an organism becoming more
mature]. This expression refers to decisions about the deployment and
treatment of personnel taken by line units as well as personnel
specialists. HRM implies an approach which recognizes that employees are
only one group among several, such as customers and shareholders, who
have a claim on the resources of the organization. In practice, HRM
cannot be considered different from Personnel management approach
operating in a competitive environment.
Management development: A
systematic process for ensuring that an organization meets its current
and future needs for effective managers; typical features include
manpower reviews, succession planning, performance appraisal and
training, both on and off the job.
Organization development: A
long-range, or strategic approach to change .involving the whole
organization, or a major part of it, aimed at improving organizational
processes and cultural development as a major contribution to the
organization's mission and goals
who is recruit to work under the' supervision of a boss and he or she
is being paid for it. Such a person may also be called a staff,
subordinate or a worker.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The study comprised five
different chapters with each of the chapter discussing different part of
the work. Chapter one will contain the introductory part of the work
with other headings like the general background to the study, statement
of the problem, objectives, research questions, hypotheses, its
significance and the scope of the study.
Chapter two discusses the
review of related literature and theoretical framework. Chapter three
focuses on the research methods adopted for the study. Amongst other
things, it discussed research design, population, sampling technique,
instrument an others. Chapter four contains the data analysis,
presentation and test of hypotheses, and finally, chapter five treats
summary, the conclusion and recommendations.