1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
know that excursions and excursion are appreciated by students. Excursions and field
study are also important learning tools in geography. Excursions are based on
the idea that the context for learning is made in the particular context where
the object for learning takes place and is placed, geography thus embodies the
practice of in situ learning. (Kent et al., 1997). Boyle, (et al., 2007)
concludes for instance that excursion in geography are effective in learning
since they are affective. Fuller (et al., 2006) and Scott (et al., 2006) also
argues that there is a need for rigorous research into this issue. Common
arguments used in describing the concern and the effectiveness of learning in
field, in terms of understanding of the subject is: providing first-hand
experience of the real world, whichever part of the world the students are in; skills
development (transferable and technical); and social benefits. Apart from the
social aspects, there are other experiences from geography field work that
emphasize the dynamics of groups in learning (Brown, 1999). Bringing students
into field may serve as a bridge between the popular and the academic (Smith,
2001). It is also argued here, that it may be fruitful to give some attention
to performative and non-representational aspects of excursions, as Basset
(2004) does when he tries to relate social theory and excurssion practice,
especially through the practice of walking, as a form of movement through the
city with aesthetic and critical potential. Walking is a practice that allows
questions being asked in between practical work and theory, and allow for the
transferring and putting theory into practice (Thrift, 2008, p.22). Clark
(1997) sees how this integration of diverse theoretical approaches and the
simultaneous consideration by students of both local (often personal) details
and national (or even global) aspects plays an important role in the field
trail. Savin-Badin & Van Niekerk (2007) use narrative inquiry in field work
as a reflective learning process. Marvell (2008) reports that the in site
presentations made by students helps to widen the experience and develop a
range of transferable skills, encouraging a greater sense of place and
facilitating reflective learning. Excursions, as an in situ learning and
teaching practice thus involve precognitive conditions that make up what is
human, and what is human is, at the same time, made in the making of teaching
in field. Learning in excursions is in one way characterized by what Kolb
(1984) defines as assimilation; however in this case, precognitions are mixed
with theoretical understandings of a city. The result of this is that the
excursion is used as means for producing accommodation of knowledge. As such,
excursions in geography involve the active engagement in real world
perspectives through the presentation in role playing (Livingstone, 1999).
Excursions involves more than just presentations of settings and pointing to
interesting spots in a landscape. Performing excursions also involve acoustic,
semantic, group dynamic, aesthetic, political, symbolic, emotional, and verbal
and gesture aspects. There is a reason for not making any clear distinction
between the teacher, the group of people involved in the excursion and the
students, because students are given the assignment to collect information
about specific places in the city, Copenhagen, before the excursion takes
place. Students in human geography and from the teachers’ education are taken
to Copenhagen every semester, since 2003. Every group consists of 15-25
students and they prepare a presentation in groups of two to three related to a
particular place on a route through the city. Every presentation must be
related to the literature in human and social geography, and every student
produce an excursionguide as part of the examination. The students thus perform
the excursion by taking the role of guiding and presenting places along a given
route, to some extent similar to Burgess and Jackson, (1992), but with the
teacher as dialogue partner. In this particular situation, the learning
experiencing and the performance of excursions and excursion are all juxtaposed
into the practice of performing an excursion, and it is therefore difficult to
separate teacher from student, or members of the group and the group itself,
and even so, the learning context from representations, concepts and the object
of learning. The teacher thus has the role of a group member that has the
option to qualify the dialogue through questions. Excursions are thus also
aimed at merging knowledge basis with the students in one shared experience,
who starts at a different point of understanding (Ellis, 1993).
OF THE GENERAL PROBLEM
lack of adequate teaching and learning of geography has had a negative effect
on the effective development and advancement of geography as a subject in the
curricular of Nigeria.
misconception of excursion in the educational system has actually had a
retrogressive effect on the teaching, excursion are being seen by most students
and even teachers as a means of just sight-seeing thereby losing sight of its
OF THE STUDY
The following are the
aims and objectives of engaging in this study
know if there is a relationship between excursion and academic performance of
know if excursion makes teaching of geography easy.
know if excursion is a cardinal area in teaching geography.
know if excursion has had the desired impact on students of geography.
1.4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
study would be important for the general teaching of geography and improving
the academic performance of geography across Nigerian colleges.
study will help school administrators and principals in in the effective
administration of their schools and introduction of effective excursions to
improve student’s performances.
study will be equally important to educational stakeholders, government,
researchers in ensuring that our educational system would not decline.
1.5. SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
study is on the effects of excursion in the teaching of geography in some
selected secondary schools in Uyo local government area.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the
researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information
and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work.
This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.6. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
excursions impact on the teaching of geography in Nigeria?
there a relationship between excursion and academic performance of geography
excursion make teaching of geography easy?
excursion had the desired impact on students of geography?
1.7. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
excursions does not significantly impact on the teaching of geography
excursions significantly impacts on the teaching of geography
1.8. DEFINITION OF TERMS
Ø EXCURSION:a short journey or
trip, especially one taken as a leisure activity.
Ø DECLINE:a gradual and
continuous loss of strength, numbers, or value.