The Petroleum industry has become the
mainstay of the overall economy of Nigeria, accounting for about 90 per
cent of the country’s foreign exchange earrings, about 20 per cent of
the Gross Domestic Product, and about 85 per cent of the Federal
Government collectable revenue. The demand for this back gold is fast
increasing worldwide. Figure 1.1, from Purvin & Gertz' most recent Global Petroleum Market Outlook study,
shows how petroleum product demand has grown since 1995 and how it is
expected to continue to grow through 2015. The study shows a 1.7 % per
annum growth in worldwide demand and that this growth rate will continue
over the next 15 years. The Purvin & Gertz study also states that
the growth in crude supplies from 60 million barrels per day in 1990 to
75 million barrels in 2005 will continue up to 95 million barrels per
day in 2020. The current growth in transportation fuel demand is
outpacing the supply of traditional crude oil sources.
This gap can be filled through increased
production of non-traditional hydrocarbon deposits, such as Canadian
oil sands, Venezuelan heavy oils. It is apparent that increasing amounts
of petroleum will come from nonconventional sources. Hence the need for
the development of our heavy crude deposits. Therefore, in order to
ensure continuity and orderly development of the industry, the Federal
Government put in place a Petroleum Policy. Prominent among the
objectives of the Policy is the development of the large deposit of tar
sands in the country.
The extensive geological studies carried
out largely by the staff of the University of Ife (now Obafemi Awolowo
University) IIe Ife, confirmed the existence of the natural bitumen in
Western Nigeria in commercial quantities. Similarly, the limited
engineering studies of the naturally occurring bitumen in the Okitipupa
area of Ondo State. Also, reference to various reports, newspaper
publications and other information media in Nigeria within the last two
decades is a pointer to the fact that petroleum crude, generally a major
source of bitumen, has been aptly described as Nigeria's "black gold".
But can this "black gold" concept of petroleum crude oil be extended to
bitumen? Perhaps the second phase of Nigeria's economic breakthrough is
round the corner!
It is in the light of the foregoing that
the title of this research work has been chosen to read: "the reserve
estimate of Bitumen deposit in Imeri, Southwestern Nigeria?" to find out
if the natural bitumen can be mined in commercial quantity as a
nonconventional petroleum to support Nigeria' s economic sector .
At the end of this project, we hope to be able to find solution to some pertinent questions like:
1) What is the meaning of bitumen?
2) What is its reserve estimate of bitumen in the study area?
3) What is its economic viability?
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVE
This project work aimed at determining:
The reserve estimate of bitumen deposit in Imeri, Ogun State, South-western Nigeria.
Its objective is to use this reserve in evaluating its commercial viability.
1.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
This project work covers:
- The determination of the depth of burial, thickness and aerial extend of deposition of bitumen in the study area.
- The estimation of bitumen reserve using the values gotten from above in the study area.
As a result of the short duration coupled with financial constraint this project will be limited to the study area.
1.4 LOCATION AND ACCESIBILITY
The study area lies within latitude 06046´-06049´N and longitudes 003058´-003060´E,
on an area extent of approximately eighteen square kilometers (~18sq.
km), a sedimentary terrain in the Dahomey Basin of Southwestern,
Nigeria. The village has good road network that link it to the express.
1.5 RELIEF AND DRAINAGE
Imeri is almost a flat plain ground with
extremely low relief with elevation between 100ft and 250ft above sea
level, the drainage pattern is sub-dendrite-like with an average annual
temperature of 310C and mean annual rainfall of 1200mm to 2300mm.
1.6 CLIMATE AND VEGETATION
The climate of Imeri is of moderately
high humidity, the vegetation include shrubs, grasses and forest with
agriculture being the predominant occupation of the dwellers.
This project work is expected to be done
within six (6) months in accordance with the school calendar and should
be ready latest September, 2011.
This project work when completed will
boost the nation’s economy by preserving our conventional oil reserves
while attention is focused on bitumen development, if all the
recommendations proposed are implemented.