1.1 Background to the Study
development and underdevelopment is one aspect of the uneven spatial
distribution of economic activity. Geography has a huge impact on
infrastructural development. Studies have shown that geography education
has a direct effect on infrastructural development especially in
developing countries such as Nigeria.
Education is an important
variable in augmenting productivity of the existing and potential labour
force of an economy, a catalytic agent for raising the level of income,
a key to the access to resources, both private and public, and a
channel of income distribution, through which gains from increased
growth can be filtered down to the lower income groups. Education is
regarded as a productive investment, as well as an all-pervasive
activity of human welfare (Rahman and Hossain, 2006). They added that,
as education is continuously developing, it becomes increasingly clear
that only well-informed research may contribute to enhance our knowledge
on what is happening inside the system, and thus enable decision makers
to take corrective measure.
The contributions of education
in achieving the modernization of the country Nigeria since the early
1960 when the country gained her independence cannot be overlooked.
Recently, the interests of countries abroad have centered on the role of
education in achieving the economic and infrastructural development in
Nigeria. Political, social and cultural factors undoubtedly contributed
to the economic growth of the country, but the effects of these factors
varied between countries in both kind and weight. The country Nigeria
has achieved rapid economic growth. However, it has one factor in
common: namely, the important role of the educational institutions. A
common basis for the economic development of Nigeria has been the
introduction of a modern educational system, especially the spread of
general elementary education to farm families who constituted the major
part of the labour force in the beginning period of modernization. Thus,
the role of modernization in achieving economic development in Nigeria
may be said to have been very important.
Education in the early 16th and 17th
century during the medieval era supported the foundation on which the
modern Nigerian economic system was created, rather than contributing
directly to economic growth. In other words, the diffusion of elementary
education raised the quality of the people’s skills, modernized their
thought, and made it possible for them to participate successfully in
modern economic activities. Hence, the high evaluation of the role of
education in achieving economic development in this country should be
attributed to consumption and invest the money thus saved in education.
The significance of geography education is immense not only on personal
level but on a larger scale as well (Craig, 2013).
Despite the improvement in the
infrastructural development of Nigeria (Asaba in particular), geography
education has no doubt contributed immensely to the rapid growth,
urbanization and socio-economic development of the region since the
creation of Delta state in 1991 and the declaration of the region as an
urban center in 2002. This rapid development in both infrastructural and
basic amenities is not far from the rapid population increase of the
region which Asaba a capital city have been the major push pull factor
for the increase in population through migration of the people in and
out of Asaba. This is true to say because the creation of Delta State
which gave birth to Asaba have improved the socio-economic activities of
the inhabitants through the provision of electricity, road networks,
communication system, improved educational facilities, environmental
facilities, housing etc through geography education knowledge. Geography
education has drawn State Government attention to develop the region.
Individuals, public and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have also
contributed immensely to the infrastructural development of Asaba
through the application of geography education knowledge and learning
skill. Hence, the need for this study, to examine the effect of
geography education on infrastructural development in Nigeria
particularly in Asaba, Oshimili North L.G.A of Delta State and make
recommendations were necessary.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Geography education is a very important
discipline which incoperates two distinctive field of study into its
teaching; they are education and geography. It has been discovered in
repeated studies that geography education has a direct effect on the
infrastructural development of any region. This is because studies have
shown that as the natural geographical setting and landscape of any
region is rapidly being replaced by an agglomeration and clustering of
both planned and unplanned building structures, its attendant
consequences are enormous. The geometric increase in population, through
migration has led to appreciable disturbance in the natural ecosystem
of Asaba, which in turn adversely affect the infrastructural development
It is apparent that in all cities
experiencing rapid urbanization, there is usually problems of housing
congestion, corruption, increased crime rate, social vices,
prostitution, urban decay among others too numerous to mention. This is
especially the case of Asaba where these negative impacts are felt on
the economy of the region.
In recent times there has been a call
for periodic re-examination of the urban environment of cities in other
to have an update and compare the situations in these cities with that
of other cities in the world. Based on these calls and with these
numerous problems and the neglects associated with Asaba as an urban
center, the need arises to carry-out this study in order to find out the
effect of geography education on infrastructural development in Nigeria
especially Asaba, Delta State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
This study is basically meant to examine
the effect of geography education on infrastructural development in
Nigeria particularly in Asaba, Oshimili North L.G.A of Delta State.
However, the specific objectives include:
- To examine the extent to which geography education has improved the infrastructural development in the area.
- To examine the effect (positive and negative) of geography education on infrastructural development of Asaba.
- To examine the role of geography education in enhancing infrastructural development in Asaba.
- To proffer solution and offer suggestions the problems associated
with the effect of geography education on infrastructural development of
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will be answered in this study;
- To what extent has geography education improved infrastructural development in the area?
- What are the effects (positive and negative) of geography education on infrastructural development of Asaba?
- What significant role has geography education played in enhancing infrastructural development in Asaba?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following research hypothesis stated in the null (H0) form will be tested in this study;
- There is no significant relationship between the effect of geography
education and the level of infrastructural development of Asaba.
- Geography education has no significant effect on infrastructural development of Asaba.
1.6 Significance of the study
This study is basically produced to
fulfill an academic requirement. Nevertheless, it is hoped that it would
go a long way to encourage more meaningful development efforts on the
issue on the effect of geography education on infrastructural
development in Nigeria particularly in Asaba, Oshimili L.G.A of Delta
This study is not intended to break an
entire new ground, rather, it is undertaken in the premise that it will
add to the existing literature in the area of geography. In addition
this study is very necessary especially at this point of Nigeria’s
development, when there is massive increase in the need to map and study
the infrastructural development of an area.
This work is expected to guide
geographers, educationists, scientists, planners, engineers, architects,
etc, and all those whose livelihood are affected to gain understanding
of how geography education affect infrastructural development in Nigeria
especially Asaba, Delta State. However, the findings will also provide
useful background information to future research in the contribution of
geography education towards nation building.
1.7 Scope of the study
The scope of this study is restricted to
the effect of geography education on infrastructural development in
Nigeria particularly in Asaba, Oshimili L.G.A of Delta State. The
project work is also restricted to some selected areas of study in the
urban and rural areas of Asaba.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
It was almost impossible to communicate
to some people during the oral interview with them as language was a
major barrier and thus almost hindered the collection of data. Despite
all these constraints, this did not deprive the researcher from
achieving dependable result. The researcher went on to use available
information at his disposal to make the write up for this work.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The following terms as used in this study were clearly defined;
Development: The process of developing, growth, directed change. It is also referred to as something that has developed.
underlying base or foundation especially for an organization or system.
The basic facilities, services and installations needed for the
functioning of a community or society.
Effect: The result or outcomes of a cause. Impression left on the mind, sensation produced.
Education: The process
or art of imparting knowledge, skill and judgment. It is also referred
to as facts, skills and ideas that have been learned, either formally or
Geography: The relationship between man and his immediate environment. It is also the study of the earth and its features.
process of the formation and growth of cities. It also referred to the
change in a country or region when its population migrates from rural to
Economic: This is pertaining to the study of money and its movement