1.1 Background of the Study
In recent years, Warri has experienced
rapid population growth as a result of increasing population in the
area. It has been observed that the main reason for this rapid increase
in population is not far from unchecked and uncontrolled migration
(Alemante, et al, 2006). Migration has no doubt affected the
socio-economic activities of destination areas especially in Warri and
its environs. The people of Warri place premium on socio-economic
development. Town unions, private individuals, and associations, being
part of voluntary agencies, have played active roles in the development
of tourism areas through the provision of environmental, and
infrastructural facilities in Delta State and Warri in particular which
have in turn boast the socio-economic development of Warri and Delta
State at large.
Any nation desires for its
people to live in a progressive, stable and peaceful community, one that
is economically, socially, materially and spiritually complete as well
as able to contribute to the country’s well-being. Caveye (2006)
contends that the community is both the means and end of community
development. Indeed, holistic participation of the community in its
development is essential to ensure that the community itself can become
more vital, improved and can make better decisions in utilizing tourism
resources, labour, knowledge, infrastructure, environments and financial
capital. Communities are the ‘grassroots’ for a country, they are its
building blocks, its foundations, they can depicts its attitudes and
drive its progress and this is why creating the best environment the
community development and encouraging good strategies are an integral
part of a country’s agenda (Anwar, 2010).
The notion of development
suggests more than just growth (Caveye, 2006). Growth means more jobs,
more schools, more infrastructure and et cetera. However, the term
development indicates an actual improvement in conditions, e.g., better
health care, less environment damage, better living conditions and
better investment for the good of the community (Anuwar, 2010). He
argued that the ideal of community development means that the community
engages itself in a process to improve its own economic, social and
Within the last decade or so,
several buzzwords that are often heard include; ‘globalization’,
‘knowledge-based economy’ and ‘human capital development’. A central
theme amongst all these buzzwords is the needs for a country to grow,
develop and compete in a world that necessitates the ability to actively
participate in the global economic environment. It may be simplistic to
say that any nation unprepared for his environment will be left behind,
but it will also be unwise to undermine the significance of a nation’s
economic participation in light of such borderless and fast-paced
exchanges (Anuwar, 2010; Craig, 2013).
As asserted by Sharma (2010),
socio-economic development is uniquely positioned between communities
and governments-they are answerable to both. The suggestion made by the
Global Alliance on Community-Engaged Research (2009) also appears
pertinent: individuals and private organizations in communities must
work together to create, mobilize and apply knowledge that are needed in
managing and creating sustainable development initiatives-clearly words
that hint at both the community and national interests in towns and
villages. In this drive towards community development and creating
equity, countries must thus search for ways to ensure open access,
encourage all members of the community to partake in socio-economic
activities as well address any discrimination in the field of geography
itself (Anuwar, 2010).
Socio-economic development is
the process of social and economic development in a society.
Socio-economic development is measured with indicators, such as Gross
domestic Product (GDP), life expectancy, literacy and levels of
employment. Changes in less-tangible factors are also considered, such
as personal dignity, freedom of association, personal safety and freedom
from four fear of physical harm, and the extent of participation in
civil society. Causes of socio-economic impacts are, for example, new
technologies, changes in laws, changes in the physical environment and
ecological changes (Craig, 2013).
Socio-economic development is
defined as a process that brings about changes in locations where people
live, work and share things in common while factoring in economic,
social, cultural and political want and needs. The quote identifies
location as a place of community as well as a geography occupied by a
socio-economic group (Rahman and Hossain, 2006). The socio prefix
(socio-economic) stands for social. Despite the improvement in the
infrastructural development of Warri, socio-economic activities have no
doubt contributed immensely to the rapid growth, urbanization and
socio-economic development of the region. This rapid development in both
infrastructural and basic amenities is not far from the rapid
population increase of the region which migration have been the major
push pull factor for the increase in population through migration of the
people in and out of Warri. This is true to say because socio-economic
activities have improved the socio-economic life and source of
livelihood of the inhabitants through the provision of electricity, road
networks, communication system, improved educational facilities,
environmental facilities, housing etc (Kanwar and Daniel, 2009).
The establishment of various
recreational centres in Warri has drawn State Government attention to
develop the region. Individuals, public and Non-Governmental
Organizations (NGOs) have also contributed immensely to the
socio-economic development of Warri. Despite these adverse development,
migration of people into Warri has brought with it huge negative effect
especially on the socio-economic life and source of livelihood of the
inhabitants in Warri. It is against this background that this study is
carried out to examine the socio-economic effect of urban-rural
migration on destination areas using Warri, Delta State as case study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Studies have shown that urban-rural migration has adverse socio-economic effect on destination areas. These effects include;
High rate of unemployment:
Increased rate of unchecked and uncontrolled migration into Warri has
resulted to unemployment in the region. In developing countries like
Nigeria rural-urban migration and urban-rural migration affects
socio-economic realities and employment opportunities in both urban and
Scarcity of land:
Increased migration has created problems of non-availability of land
resources for both tourism development and agricultural production. This
often leads to low crop yield, neglect in tourism development, poor
infrastructural development among others. Most of the migrants move to
the town alone. They had some information about the town and the
decision of their migration is mostly made by themselves. However, most of them migrated decide to migrate not in planned way (Craig, 2013).
A greater number of the migrants are
young adults, males, and unmarried and had some form of education
before they decided to migrate. There are many causes
for the movement of the people to the town. Among them the search for
job, to gain education and training, and problem related with land and
agricultural productivity was the major one. Many of the migrants
encountered problems at the initial period of adjustment and adaptation
and even currently (Sandar, 2005).
Rapid population growth: The
rate of urbanization in developing nations has increased in alarming
rate. The cause for the process of urbanization has in the developed
Western state and developing countries has differed greatly. The
underlying factor in the case of the former was industrialization but
rural-urban migration due to population presser on the rural land for
the latter group (Kahun, 2000, ILO, 2012). Thus in view of the high
rates of urban population growth and the low level of urbanization,
rural to urban migration appears to have been the major component of
urban population growth in many developing countries. In different parts
of African migration is considered as a means to escape economic,
social, political problems and challenges it is a survival strategy
(Sandar, 2005). The reason varies from not conducive geographical
environment in Mail to that of severs poverty (Sandar, 2003).
Landlessness, fragmented, unproductive land holdings and poor income
compel rural exodus in most of the urban cities (Sandar, 2005).
Increased urban and rural problems: The
unchecked and uncontrolled migration into the city of Warri and its
surrounding rural areas has resulted to attendant urban and rural
problems such as unemployment, housing congestion, increase in crime
rate, poor health condition due to lack of medical facilities, shortage
of water supply, inadequate electrification, poor communication system
and bad road network, among others. Such high influx of population has
its own effects on the areas of departure and destination on the regard
of social, economic, environmental, cultural and political (Craig,
Poor social amenities:
Migration brings with it problems of poor and inadequate social and
environmental facilities various communities (Anuwar, 2010). This
indicates that the town experiencing a high number of in-migration
mainly from Warri axis. The researcher had very much familiar with
research areas from his childhood. In connection to this, at the present
time the town is faced with serious of problem within and around due to
high population pressure. For instance some of the main problems in the
eyes of the researcher are environmental pollution, natural resources
degradation, overcrowdings, social unrest (theft, crime, and pick
pocket), high living cost and poor urban amenities.
Although actual data on urban-rural
migration and its socio-economic effect on destination areas is scanty,
it is believed that Warri received a large migrant population each year.
Warri faced a series of problems due to rapid population growth. It is
against this background that this study is carried out to address the
above mentioned problems with the hope of proffering solutions to the
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study is to
investigate the socio-economic effect of urban-rural migration on the
destination areas based on a case study of Warri, Delta State. It is on
the background of this, that the researcher intend to:
- determine the causes and consequent effect of migration in Warri;
- examine the socio-economic effect of migration on destination areas in Warri, Delta State;
- To make recommendation(s) on the causes and effects of migration in Warri, Delta State.
1.4 Research Questions
The researcher designed the following questions to guide the study. They include;
- What are the causes and consequent effect of migration in the study area?
- What are the reason(s) why people migrate from urban areas to rural areas?
- What are the socio-economic effects of migration on destination areas in the study area?
- What are the socio-economic activities and source of livelihood of the inhabitants in Warri?
- What are the recommendation(s) on the causes and effects of migration in Warri, Delta State?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The study is guided by the following hypotheses.
- Migration has no socio-economic effect on the destination areas in Warri.
- Migration has no significant impact on the socio-economic activities and source of livelihood of the inhabitants in Warri.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study focuses on the socio-economic
effect of urban-rural migration on the destination areas using Warri,
Delta State. This will enhance the destination’s ability to offer
visitors improved festival experience and elicit high repeat
The overall consideration of the significance of the study will be summarized in the following statements.
- Fill the gap in the literature
in the areas of urban-rural Migration and its socio-economic effect on
the destination areas,
- It become not a primary but a secondary source of information for researchers , academicians and practitioners,
- Serve as guiding documents for
policy makers for the adaption, formulation and implementation of a
genuine rural development strategies, efficient urban management,
migration policy, etc.
- Give insight for the town
administrators about the existing and emerging socio-economic challenge
of the migrants in relation with the socio-economic services provided by
the town administration.
1.7 STUDY AREA
Warri is an ancient city in the Niger
Delta coast of Nigeria. Warri is well known to be one of the busiest
cities in Nigeria. Warri Metropolis has three (3) local government areas
which are Warri South, Udu and Uvwie Local Government Areas of Delta